Refuting Sam Shamoun's Arguments Against The Monotheism of Islam: Part 12
Rebuttal to Sam Shamoun's Article "Islam's Other god:
The Muslim Deification of Muhammad"
[Introduction, Sami Zaatari's Rebuttals to Shamoun, Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 6, Part 7, Part 8, Part 9, Part 10, Part 11, Part 12, Tawassul in Christianity]
We encourage the reader to first read Shamoun's series over here, here, here and here.
Sam Shamoun said:
The Quran even asserts that Muhammad himself has the authority to declare permitted and forbidden, i.e. to make halal and haram. This was hinted at already in some verses above, but is even more explicit here:
Fight those who believe not in God and the Last Day and do not forbid what God and His Messenger have forbidden -- such men as practise not the religion of truth, being of those who have been given the Book -- until they pay the tribute out of hand and have been humbled. S. 9:29
But no! by your Lord! they do not believe (in reality) until they make YOU a judge of that which has become a matter of disagreement among them, and then do not find any straitness in their hearts as to what YOU have decided and submit with entire submission. S. 4:65
And whatever Allah restored to His Messenger from them you did not press forward against it any horse or a riding camel but Allah gives authority to His messengers against whom He pleases, and Allah has power over all things. Whatever Allah has restored to His Messenger from the people of the towns, it is for Allah and for the Messenger, and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, so that it may not be a thing taken by turns among the rich of you, and whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; surely Allah is severe in retributing (evil): S. 59:6-7
The Qur'an makes it clear that Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) can't make things forbidden unless Allah has permitted him to do so:
O Prophet! why do you forbid (yourself) that which Allah has made lawful for you; you seek to please your wives; and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
We know that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) judges what is permissible and forbidden (i.e. right and wrong) by using the revelation that Allah has sent down to him:
"Surely We have revealed the Book to you with the truth that you may judge between people by means of that which Allah has shown you; and be not an advocate on behalf of the treacherous."
"And We have revealed to you the Book with the truth, verifying what is before it of the Book and a guardian over it, therefore judge between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their low desires (to turn away) from the truth that has come to you;"
Therefore, we see that it is Allah who is declaring what is right and wrong, but He uses Muhammad (peace be upon him) as His agent to communicate those commands to the people.
Sam Shamoun said:
Regarding salvation, the Quran tells Muslims not to despair of Allah's mercy:
O my sons, go ye and inquire about Joseph and his brother and despair not of the mercy of ALLAH; for none despairs of ALLAH's mercy save the disbelieving people. S. 12:87
Say, `Travel in the earth, and see how HE originated the creation. Then will ALLAH create the second creation. Surely, ALLAH has power over all things; He punishes whom He pleases and has mercy on whom He pleases, and to Him you shall be turned back. Those who disbelieve in the Signs of ALLAH and the meeting with HIM - it is they who despair of MY mercy. And they will have a grievous punishment. S. 29:21-23 Sher Ali
Say, `O MY servants who have sinned against their souls, despair not of the mercy of ALLAH, surely, ALLAH forgives all sins. Verily, HE is Most forgiving, Ever Merciful; S. 39:53
These passages indicate that Allah alone is the source of a Muslim's hope and redemption, and that they are not to despair of his favor and forgiveness.
The ahadith, on the other hand, contradict this and point to Muhammad as the saviour and hope of Muslims:
The Prophet said, "The believers will be kept (waiting) on the Day of Resurrection so long that they will become worried and say, 'Let us ask somebody to intercede far us with our Lord so that He may relieve us from our place.'
Then they will go to Adam and say, 'You are Adam, the father of the people. Allah created you with His Own Hand and made you reside in His Paradise and ordered His angels to prostrate before you, and taught you the names of all things. Will you intercede for us with your Lord so that He may relieve us from this place of ours?' Adam will say, 'I am not fit for this undertaking.' He will mention his mistakes he had committed, i.e., his eating off the tree though he had been forbidden to do so. He will add, 'Go to Noah, the first prophet sent by Allah to the people of the Earth.' The people will go to Noah who will say, 'I am not fit for this undertaking.' He will mention his mistake which he had done, i.e., his asking his Lord without knowledge. He will say (to them), 'Go to Abraham, Khalil Ar-Rahman.' They will go to Abraham who will say, 'I am not fit for this undertaking.' He would mention three words by which he told a lie, and say (to them). 'Go to Moses, a slave whom Allah gave the Torah and spoke to, directly and brought near Him, for conversation.'
They will go to Moses who will say, 'I am not fit for this undertaking.' He will mention his mistake he made, i.e., killing a person, and will say (to them), 'Go to Jesus, Allah's slave and His Apostle, and His Spirit and His Word.' They will go to Jesus who will say, 'I am not fit for this undertaking but you'd better go to Muhammad the slave whose past and future sins have been forgiven by Allah.' So they will come to me, and I will ask my Lord's permission to enter His House and then I will be permitted. When I see Him I will fall down in prostration before Him, and He will leave me (in prostration) as long as He will, and then He will say, 'O Muhammad, lift up your head and speak, for you will be listened to, and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted, and ask (for anything) for it will be granted:' Then I will raise my head and glorify my Lord with certain praises which He has taught me. Allah will put a limit for me (to intercede for a certain type of people) I WILL TAKE THEM OUT AND MAKE THEM ENTER PARADISE." (Qatada said: I heard Anas saying that), the Prophet said, "I will go out and take them out of Hell (Fire) and let them enter Paradise, and then I will return and ask my Lord for permission to enter His House and I will be permitted.
When I will see Him I will fall down in prostration before Him and He will leave me in prostration as long as He will let me (in that state), and then He will say, 'O Muhammad, raise your head and speak, for you will be listened to, and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted, and ask, your request will be granted.'" The Prophet added, "So I will raise my head and glorify and praise Him as He has taught me. Then I will intercede and He will put a limit for me (to intercede for a certain type of people). I will take them out and let them enter Paradise." (Qatada added: I heard Anas saying that) the Prophet said, "I will go out and take them out of Hell (Fire) and let them enter Paradise, and I will return for the third time and will ask my Lord for permission to enter His house, and I will be allowed to enter.
When I see Him, I will fall down in prostration before Him, and will remain in prostration as long as He will, and then He will say, 'Raise your head, O Muhammad, and speak, for you will be listened to, and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted, and ask, for your request will be granted.' So I will raise my head and praise Allah as He has taught me and then I will intercede and He will put a limit for me (to intercede for a certain type of people). I will take them out and let them enter Paradise." (Qatada said: I heard Anas saying that) the Prophet said, "So I will go out and take them out of Hell (Fire) and let them enter Paradise, till none will remain in the Fire except those whom Quran will imprison (i.e., those who are destined for eternal life in the fire)." The narrator then recited the Verse:-- "It may be that your Lord will raise you to a Station of Praise and Glory." (17.79) The narrator added: This is the Station of Praise and Glory which Allah has promised to your Prophet. (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 93, Number 532v: http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/093.sbt.html#009.093.532v)
The fact that the Prophet (peace be upon him) would be an intercessor helping those get out of hell and heaven in no way shows that he has the power of saving whomever he wishes. If that were the case, then the Prophet (peace be upon him) would have chosen to get his uncle and mother out of hell.
Also, the Prophet (peace be upon him) would only be an intercessor because of Allah's permission (Surah 2:255), hence in no way could we view Muhammad (peace be upon him) as being on the same level as Allah when it comes to saving people.
Sam Shamoun said:
Another variant has that Adam said, "When you created me, I lifted my gaze to Your Throne AND WRITTEN ON IT WAS: 'There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,' so I knew there would be no one held in greater esteem by You than the one whose name You placed alongside Your own name." Allah then revealed to him, "By My might and majesty, he is the last of the prophets among your descendants. IF IT HAD NOT BEEN FOR HIM, I WOULD HAVE NOT CREATED YOU." It is said that Adam was given the kunya, Abu Muhammad. Some people say that it was Abu'l-Bashar (the father of mankind). (p. 89)
The following narration is attributed to Ibn 'Abbas and is cited by a Muslim scholar named al-Hakim:
"Allah revealed to 'Isa (Jesus, peace be upon him): 'O 'Isa, believe in Muhammad, and tell whoever you meet of your ummah (community) to believe in him. For were it not for Muhammad, I would not have created Adam, and were it not for Muhammad, I would not have created Paradise and Hell. I created the Throne over the water and it would not settle until I wrote on it, Laa ilaaha ill-Allah Muhammad Rasool Allah (There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah)."
Al-Hakim, said that the isnaad (or chain of transmission) for the above was sahih or sound (see this article: http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/093.sbt.html#009.093.532v)
But for you, I would not have created the spheres. (al-Ajluni, Kashf al-Khafa', 2.232)
"Were it not for you, I would not have created the universe." (al-Shawkaani, al-Fawaa'id al-Majmoo'ah fi'l-Ahaadeeth al-Mawdoo'ah, p. 326)
Although most Muslim scholars hold these hadiths to be fabricated, they are nevertheless very popular, have spread widely and are quoted many times in writings of common Muslim piety and even by some scholars.
Even amongst those Muslims who argue that the above narration is fabricated, there are some who still agree that the content or meaning is true. For example, this next scholar, ash-Shaykh Mulla Alee Qaaree (d. 1014), said:
"maudu [fabricated], but it's meaning is correct..." ('al-Asraar al-Marfoo'ah' of Alee al-Qaaree, pp. 67-68; bold emphasis and words within brackets ours)
The 18th century scholar al-Ajluni, whom we cited above, mentioned in his book on popular hadiths that despite this narration having been forged, in his opinion it is still sound in meaning even if not an authentic narration.
Sunni Muslim writer, G.F. Haddad, in his adaptation of the work by Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Lata'if al-Ma`arif fi ma li Mawasim al-`Am min al-Waza'if ("The Subtleties of Learning Concerning the Devotions That Pertain to the Various Times of the Year", ed. YaSin Muhammad al-Sawwas, Dar Ibn Kathir, 1996), stated:
... So it is possible that Muhammad - Allah bless and greet him - was specifically brought out from the loins of Adam before the spirit was breathed into the latter, for Muhammad - Allah bless and greet him - is the purpose (al-maqsud) in the creation of the human species, he is its very essence (`aynuhu), quintessence (khulasatuhu), and core (wasita `aqdih). And it has been narrated that Adam - upon him peace - saw the name of Muhammad - Allah bless and greet him - written on the Throne and that Allah - Almighty and Glorified - said to Adam: "Were it not for Muhammad I would not have created you." Al-Hakim narrated it in his Sahih [see its documentation in the Encyclopedia of Islamic Doctrine 4:36-41].
[The above position is also that of Ibn Rajab's two teachers, Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn al-Qayyim. Ibn Taymiyya said in his Fatawa al-Kubra (11:95-97):
"Muhammad - Allah bless and greet him - is the Chief of the Children of Adam, the Best of Creation, the noblest of them in the sight of Allah. This is why some have said that "Allah created the Universe due to him," or that "Were it not for him, He would have neither created a Throne, nor a Footstool, nor a heaven, earth, sun or moon." However, this is not a hadith on the authority of the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him -... but it may be explained from a correct aspect...
"Since the best of the righteous of the children of Adam is Muhammad - Allah bless and greet him -, creating him was a desirable end of deeep-seated purposeful wisdom, more than for anyone else, and hence the completion of creation and the fulfillment of perfection was attained with Muhammad, may Allah Exalted bless him and grant him peace... The Chief of the Children of Adam is Muhammad, may Allah Exalted bless him and grant him peace, Adam and his children being under his banner. He, may Allah Exalted bless him and grant him peace, said: "Truly, I was written as the Seal of the Prophets with Allah, when Adam was going to-and-fro in his clay," i.e. that my prophethood was decreed and manifested when Adam - upon him peace - was created but before the breathing of the Spirit into him, just as Allah decrees the livelihood, lifespan, deeds and misery or happiness of the slave when He creates the embryo but before the breathing of the spirit into it.
"Since man is the seal and last of all creation, and its microcosm, and since the best of man is thus the best of all creation absolutely, then Muhammad - Allah bless and greet him -, being the Pupil of the Eye, the Axis of the Mill, and the Distributor to the Collective, is as it were the Ultimate Purpose from amongst all the purposes of creation. Thus it cannot be denied to say that "Due to him all of this was created", or that "Were it not for him, all this would not have been created," so if statements like this are thus explained according to what the Book and the Sunna indicate, it is acceptable." End of Ibn Taymiyya's words.
Similarly Ibn al-Qayyim wrote in his Bada'i` al-Fawa'id (p. 63): "Have you realized your value? I only created all the universes for your sake... All things are trees whose fruit you are."] (Source: http://www.sunnah.org/fiqh/Ibn_Rajab_Mawlid.htm)
This next Muslim writer agrees that Muhammad is the reason for creation:
... That blessed person, who is the Beloved of God, for whose sake God created all the worlds, is absolutely free from every kind of defect, fault and shortcoming. (F. Gulen, The Infinite Light, Volume 1, Chapter five - The essentials of Prophethood: THE INFALLIBILITY OF THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD, UPON HIM BE PEACE AND BLESSINGS; http://www.ymsite.com/books/infinitelight/infpg37.html#f; underline emphasis ours)
Before passing on to explain the reasons for the setback suffered at Uhud, it should be pointed out that the Companions have, after the Prophets, superiority over all the other people in virtue. They were honored with being the comrades and trainees of the greatest of the whole creation, one for whose sake the universe was created and who was sent as a mercy for all the worlds, that is, the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings... (Gulen, The Infinite Light, Volume 2, Chapter eight - The Military Dimension of Muhammad's Prophethood: THE BATTLE OF UHUD: http://www.ymsite.com/books/infinitelight/inf2pg4.htm#h; underline emphasis ours)
First of all, Shamoun acknowledges that the authenticity of this narration is in doubt.
Shaykh Al Munajjid states:
Many false and fabricated ahaadeeth have been narrated that say similar things. For example:
"Were it not for you, I would not have created the universe."
This was quoted by al-Shawkaani in al-Fawaa'id al-Majmoo'ah fi'l-Ahaadeeth al-Mawdoo'ah (p. 326). He said:
Al-San'aani said: (it is) mawdoo' (fabricated).
Al-Albaani said in al-Silsilah al-Da'eefah (282): (it is) mawdoo'.
Another example is the hadeeth narrated by al-Haakim according to which Ibn 'Abbaas said:
"Allaah revealed to 'Eesa (Jesus, peace be upon him): 'O 'Eesa, believe in Muhammad, and tell whoever you meet of your ummah to believe in him. For were it not for Muhammad, I would not have created Adam, and were it not for Muhammad, I would not have created Paradise and Hell. I created the Throne over the water and it would not settle until I wrote on it, Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah Muhammad Rasool Allaah (There is no god but Allaah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah)."
Al-Haakim said: its isnaad is saheeh! But al-Dhahabi commented on that and said: I believe it is fabricated and falsely attributed to Sa'eed.
Meaning, Sa'eed ibn Abu 'Aroobah (one of the narrators of this hadeeth). This hadeeth was narrated from him by 'Amr ibn Aws al-Ansaari, who is the one who is accused of fabricating it. Al-Dhahabi mentioned him in al-Meezaan where he said: "He produced a munkar report," then he quoted this hadeeth, and said, "I believe that it is mawdoo' (fabricated)." Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar agreed with him, as it says in al-Lisaan.
Al-Albaani said in al-Silsilah al-Da'eefah (280): There is no basis for it.
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked:
Is the hadeeth which some people quote - "Were it not for you, Allaah would not have created the Throne or the Kursiy or the earth or the heavens or the sun or the moon or anything else" saheeh or nor?
Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is the leader of the sons of Adam, and the best and noblest of creation, hence some people say that Allaah created the universe because of him, or that were it not for him, Allaah would not have created the Throne or the Kursiy or the earth or the heavens or the sun or the moon.
But this hadeeth that is narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is neither saheeh (sound) nor da'eef (weak), and it was not narrated by any scholar in a hadeeth from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Neither was it known from the Sahaabah. Rather it is the words of one who is unknown.
Majmoo' al-Fataawa, 11/86-96.
The Standing Committee was asked:
Can it be said that Allaah created the heavens and the earth for the purpose of creating the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)? What is the meaning of the hadeeth, "Were it not for you the universe would not have been created," and does this hadeeth have any basis?
The heavens and the earth were not created for the sake of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), rather they were created for the purpose which Allaah mentions (interpretation of the meaning):
"It is Allaah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth), that you may know that Allaah has power over all things, and that Allaah surrounds all things in (His) Knowledge"
As for the hadeeth mentioned, it is falsely attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and has no sound basis.
Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa'imah, 1/312
Shaykh Ibn Baaz was asked about this hadeeth and said:
The answer is that this was transmitted from the words of some of the common people who have no understanding. Some people say that the world was created for the sake of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and were it not for Muhammad the world would not have been created and mankind would not have been created. This is false and has no basis, and these are corrupt words. Allaah created the world so that He would be known and worshipped. He created the world and He created mankind so that His names and attributes, His power and knowledge, would be known and so that He alone would be worshipped with no partner or associate, and so that He would be obeyed - not for the sake of Muhammad or for the sake of Nooh or Moosa or 'Eesa or any other Prophet. Rather Allaah created the universe so that He alone would be worshipped, with no partner or associate.
Fataawa Noor 'ala al-Darb, 46. (Source)
Secondly, as for the words of Ibn Taymiyyah and his possibly sound interpretation of the narration this has been discussed in much detail over here.
Sam Shamoun said:
The Quran identifies Muhammad as a light giving lamp:
O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of glad tidings, and a Warner, and as one who invites to Allah by His leave, and as a Lamp spreading Light. S. 33:45-46
Muslim tradition took this assertion and ran with it, going so far as to suggest that Muhammad's light was one of the first things created and that he also literally emitted light:
The Mother of the Book is the source of all knowledge, including the Divine Scriptures. It is the essential knowledge of Allah before He created creation. This is why it is said to have been written fifty thousand years before the creation of the cosmos, a symbolic number, since without stars and planets there cannot be days and years as we understand them. Allah conceived His creation in the darkness of non-existence, then with the light of His creative act brought them out into existence. Thus the First Light was created, a being appearing against the dark background of non-existence. "The first thing that Allah created was the Intellect," said the Prophet, may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him. He also said, "The first thing that Allah created was the Pen," which amounts to the same thing, since the first intellect is the primordial light in its passive aspect as recipient of the knowledge of what is to be, while the Pen is the primordial light in its active aspect of writing this knowledge on the Guarded Tablet at Allah's command. "The first thing that Allah created was the Pen and He said to it: Write! So it wrote what is to be forever." From this First light all of creation, with all its varied forms and meanings till the end of time unfolds.
This primordial light is what is called the Light of the Prophet, may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him, since he is the created being who received the major share of it.
This light was also the origin of the lights of all other Divine Messengers, of the angels, then of all other beings. This is how the Prophet, may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him, could say, "I was a Prophet when Adam was still between spirit and body." The power of this light made the Prophet's radiation so powerful, once he appeared on earth, that Allah calls him in the Qur'ân "an illuminating lamp." Allah describes the sun and the moon in the Qur'ân in like manner explaining what He means when He says that He made the Prophet "an illuminating lamp" ...
Some of the Prophet's Companions were given to see this light as even brighter than both the sun and moon, for when they walked with him they noticed that he cast no shadow on the ground. Those who saw him in the full moon noticed that his blessed face was brighter than the moon, and one of his Companions, the Lady Rubayyi', when asked to describe him, said, "My son, had you seen him, you would have seen the sun shining." ...
The narration regarding the first thing being created was the light of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is a well known fabrication, for it has no chain of transmission for us to even critique!
Shaykh Al Munajjid said:
Our Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is the leader of all the sons of Adam, and he is a human being, one of the sons of Adam. He was born from two parents, he ate food and married woman, he got hungry and fell sick, and he felt joy and sorrow. One of the clearest signs of his humanity is that Allaah caused him to die as He causes all souls to die, but what distinguishes the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) from others is Prophethood and Revelation.
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
"Say (O Muhammad): I am only a man like you. It has been revealed to me that your Ilaah (God) is One Ilaah (God ___ i.e. Allaah)"
The state of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in his humanity is the same as that of all the Prophets and Messengers. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
"And We did not create them (the Messengers, with) bodies that ate not food, nor were they immortals"
Allaah condemned those who wondered at the humanity of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
"And they say: Why does this Messenger (Muhammad) eat food, and walk about in the markets (as we).?"
It is not permissible to overstep the mark with regard to what the Qur'aan states about the message and humanity of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). For example, it is not permissible to describe him (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) as being noor (light) or as casting no shadow, or to say that he was created from light. Rather this is a kind of exaggeration which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade when he said: "Do not exaggerate about me as was exaggerated about 'Eesa ibn Maryam. Say: the slave of Allaah and His Messenger." Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 6830.
Moreover it is proven that the angels are the ones who were created from light, not any of the sons of Adam. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "The angels were created from light, and Iblees was created from smokeless fire, and Adam (peace be upon him) was created from what has been described to you." Narrated by Muslim, 2996.
Shaykh al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah (458):
This indicates that the well known hadeeth that is in circulation among people - "The first thing that Allaah created was the light of your Prophet, O Jaabir" - is false, and so are other similar ahaadeeth which say that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was created from light. This hadeeth clearly indicates that the angels are the only ones who are created from light, not Adam and his sons, so pay heed and do not be negligent. End quote.
The Standing Committee for Issuing Fatwas was asked the following question:
Here in Pakistan the scholars of the Bareilawi sect believe that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) cast no shadow, which indicates that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was not human. Is this hadeeth saheeh which says that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had no shadow?
This view is false and goes against the texts of the Qur'aan and the saheeh Sunnah which indicate that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was human and did not differ in his human make-up from other people. He had a shadow like any other human. The Prophethood with which Allaah honoured him did not alter the fact that he was human as Allaah created him, with a father and mother. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
"Say (O Muhammad): I am only a man like you. It has been revealed to me that your Ilaah (God) is One Ilaah (God ___i.e. Allaah)"
"Their Messengers said to them: We are no more than human beings like you"
With regard to the report that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was created from the light of Allaah, this is a fabricated hadeeth. End quote.
Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa'imah, 1/464 (Source)
Even top Sufi apologist Shaykh Abu Al-Fadl Abdullah Ibn Al-Siddīq Al-Ghumari had to admit that it is a fabrication (see here).
For a more thorough study read this.
Sam Shamoun said:
The light of the Prophet, may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him, manifested itself in his parents before and during his birth. His biographers have recorded that his father's forehead shone with a light that a certain women from Quraysh noticed. She knew that the appearance of the Prophet of the End of Time was imminent and felt that 'Abdallah's forehead signalled his being the father. She offered herself to him, but he refused. Soon `Abdallah married Amina and, once she became pregnant with the Prophet, the light vanished from his forehead. He met the same woman again and, noticing she no longer wanted him, asked her why. She replied that he no longer carried that light on his forehead. As for the Lady Amina, when she became pregnant, she saw in a dream-vision that a light came out of her that lit the land as far north as Syria. She was also told in her dream that she was pregnant with the master of this nation and the sign of that would be that when she gave birth to him she would see a light coming out with him that would shine over Bosra in Syria. "When this happens", she was told, "call him Muhammad!" "I conceived him, " she said, "and suffered no pain until delivery. When he came out of me, a light came out with him that illuminated everything from East to West." She also said, "I saw the night I gave birth to him a light that illuminated the palaces of Syria so that I saw them." The Prophet later confirmed this, saying, "My mother saw, when she gave birth to me, a light that illuminated the palaces of Bosra." This event is also a very clear indication of the spiritual rank of the Lady Amina, for to see the palaces of Bosra in Syria from Macca demands the spiritual vision of sanctity. Later, the Prophet's uncle, 'Abbas, praised him with a poem, on his return from the Tabuk expedition, saying:
You, when you were born, the earth was lit
And with your light so was the sky
When his wet-nurse, Halima al-Sa'dia, first saw him, she laid her hand on him and he smiled. "When he smiled," she said, "a light appeared from his mouth that rose to the sky."
The light of the Prophet shone at all levels, it filled the material, intermediary, and spiritual worlds, dispelled the darkness of ignorance and disbelief, and is destined to shine across the ages till the end of time. (Dr. Mostafa al-Badawi, The Light of the Prophet: http://www.masud.co.uk/ISLAM/misc/nuremuhammadi.htm)
Despite the inability to state that this story is authentic (see details here) this story in no way shows that the Prophet (peace be upon him) is actually created from light. The light that appeared during his birth (assuming the event even occurred) doesn't necessarily have to be from the Prophet (peace be upon him) himself.
Sam Shamoun said:
G.F. Haddad, in an article seeking to defend Muhammad's omnipresence, provides some additional quotes from Muslim scholars:
Shaykh 'Abd al-Hadi Kharsa told us:
The Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, possesses knowledge of all that is and knows the created universes in the same way that one knows a room in which one sits. Nothing is hidden from him.
The claim that Muhammad (peace be upon him) possesses knowledge of all things is unfounded and unsupported by the Islamic texts. Below we provide examples of the Prophet's (peace be upon him) lack of knowledge.
Book 030, Hadith Number 5832.
Chapter : It is obligatory to follow the Prophet (may peace be upon him) in all matters pertaining to religion, but one is free to act on one's own opinion in matters which pertain to technical skill.
Anas reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) happened to pass by the people who had been busy in grafting the trees. Thereupon he said: If you were not to do it, it might be good for you. (So they abandoned this practice) and there was a decline in the yield. He (the Holy Prophet) happened to pass by them (and said): What has gone wrong with your trees? They said: You said so and so. Thereupon he said: You have better knowledge (of a technical skill) in the affairs of the world.
If the Prophet (peace be upon him) knew all things, how could he tell his companions that they know better about the matters of this world than himself?
Volume 002, Book 023, Hadith Number 437.
Narated By Ibn 'Umar : 'Umar set out along with the Prophet (p.b.u.h) with a group of people to Ibn Saiyad till they saw him playing with the boys near the hillocks of Bani Mughala. Ibn Saiyad at that time was nearing his puberty and did not notice (us) until the Prophet stroked him with his hand and said to him, "Do you testify that I am Allah's Apostle?" Ibn Saiyad looked at him and said, "I testify that you are the Messenger of illiterates." Then Ibn Saiyad asked the Prophet (p.b.u.h), "Do you testify that I am Allah's Apostle?" The Prophet (p.b.u.h) refuted it and said, "I believe in Allah and His Apostles." Then he said (to Ibn Saiyad), "What do you think?" Ibn Saiyad answered, "True people and liars visit me." The Prophet said, "You have been confused as to this matter." Then the Prophet said to him, "I have kept something (in my mind) for you, (can you tell me that?)" Ibn Saiyad said, "It is Al-Dukh (the smoke)." (2) The Prophet said, "Let you be in ignominy. You cannot cross your limits." On that 'Umar, said, "O Allah's Apostle! Allow me to chop his head off." The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said, "If he is he (i.e. Dajjal), then you cannot over-power him, and if he is not, then there is no use of murdering him." (Ibn 'Umar added): Later on Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) once again went along with Ubai bin Ka'b to the date-palm trees (garden) where Ibn Saiyad was staying. The Prophet (p.b.u.h) wanted to hear something from Ibn Saiyad before Ibn Saiyad could see him, and the Prophet (p.b.u.h) saw him lying covered with a sheet and from where his murmurs were heard. Ibn Saiyad's mother saw Allah's Apostle while he was hiding himself behind the trunks of the date-palm trees. She addressed Ibn Saiyad, "O Saf ! (and this was the name of Ibn Saiyad) Here is Muhammad." And with that Ibn Saiyad got up. The Prophet said, "Had this woman left him (Had she not disturbed him), then Ibn Saiyad would have revealed the reality of his case.
If the Prophet (peace be upon him) was All Knowing, then why did he need to sneak up on Ibn Saiyad to know what he was going to say?
Volume 004, Book 055, Hadith Number 546.
Narated By Anas : When 'Abdullah bin Salam heard the arrival of the Prophet at Medina, he came to him and said, "I am going to ask you about three things which nobody knows except a prophet: What is the first portent of the Hour? What will be the first meal taken by the people of Paradise? Why does a child resemble its father, and why does it resemble its maternal uncle" Allah's Apostle said, "Gabriel has just now told me of their answers." 'Abdullah said, "He (i.e. Gabriel), from amongst all the angels, is the enemy of the Jews." Allah's Apostle said, "The first portent of the Hour will be a fire that will bring together the people from the east to the west; the first meal of the people of Paradise will be Extra-lobe (caudate lobe) of fish-liver. As for the resemblance of the child to its parents: If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife and gets discharge first, the child will resemble the father, and if the woman gets discharge first, the child will resemble her." On that 'Abdullah bin Salam said, "I testify that you are the Apostle of Allah." 'Abdullah bin Salam further said, "O Allah's Apostle! The Jews are liars, and if they should come to know about my conversion to Islam before you ask them (about me), they would tell a lie about me." The Jews came to Allah's Apostle and 'Abdullah went inside the house. Allah's Apostle asked (the Jews), "What kind of man is 'Abdullah bin Salam amongst you?" They replied, "He is the most learned person amongst us, and the best amongst us, and the son of the best amongst us." Allah's Apostle said, "What do you think if he embraces Islam (will you do as he does)?" The Jews said, "May Allah save him from it." Then 'Abdullah bin Salam came out in front of them saying, "I testify that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah." Thereupon they said, "He is the evilest among us, and the son of the evilest amongst us," and continued talking badly of him.
If the Prophet (peace be upon him) was All Knowing, why did he need Gabriel to tell him the answers?
Volume 005, Book 059, Hadith Number 336.
Narated By Ar-Rubai bint Muauwidh : The Prophet came to me after consuming his marriage with me and sat down on my bed as you (the sub-narrator) are sitting now, and small girls were beating the tambourine and singing in lamentation of my father who had been killed on the day of the battle of Badr. Then one of the girls said, "There is a Prophet amongst us who knows what will happen tomorrow." The Prophet said (to her)," Do not say this, but go on saying what you have spoken before."
Why would the Prophet (peace be upon him) tell the girl to stop saying that if it is true?
Volume 005, Book 059, Hadith Number 439.
Narated By Jabir : On the day of Al-Ahzab (i.e. clans), Allah's Apostle said, 'Who will bring us the news of the people (i.e. the clans of Quraish infidels)?" Az-Zubair said, "I." The Prophet again said, "Who will bring us the news of the people?" AzZubair said, "I." The Prophet again said, "Who will bring us the news of the people?" Az-Zubair said, "I." The Prophet then said, "Every prophet has his Hawari (i.e. disciple-special helper); my disciple is Az-Zubair.
If the Prophet (peace be upon him) is All Knowing, why would he need someone to bring him news?
Volume 006, Book 060, Hadith Number 151.
Narated By Abdullah : Allah's Apostle said, "The key of the Unseen are five: Verily with Allah (Alone) is the knowledge of the Hour He sends down the rain and knows what is in the wombs. No soul knows what it will earn tomorrow, and no soul knows in what land it will die. Verily, Allah is All-Knower, All-Aware." (31.34)
If the Prophet (peace be upon him) knew everything then why didn't he know the five above things?
Volume 009, Book 088, Hadith Number 172.
Narated By Asma' : The Prophet said, "I will be at my Lake-Fount (Kauthar) waiting for whoever will come to me. Then some people will be taken away from me whereupon I will say, 'My followers!' It will be said, 'You do not know they turned Apostates as renegades (deserted their religion).'" (Ibn Abi Mulaika said, "Allah, we seek refuge with You from turning on our heels from the (Islamic) religion and from being put to trial").
Why would it be said to the Prophet (peace be upon him) that he didn't know that some of his companions apostatized if he is indeed All Knowing?
Also see here for more proof that Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) wasn't omniscient.
Sam Shamoun said:
There are two verses of the Holy Qur'an that affirm this, [But how (will it be with them) when we bring of every people a witness, and We bring you (O Muhammad) a witness against these] (4:41) and [Thus We have appointed you a middle nation, that you may be witnesses against mankind and that the messenger may be a witness against you] (2:143) nor can the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, be called to witness over what he does not know nor see.
Ibn Hajar in his commentary of the above narration in Fath al-Bari said that another same-chained, similar narration in Ahmad and Ibn Majah shows that such witnessing applies to all the Communities and not just that of Nuh, `alayhis salaam:
The Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, said: "One Prophet shall come on the Day of Resurrection with a single man [as his Community]; another Prophet shall come with two men; others, with more. The nation of each Prophet shall be summoned and asked, 'Did this Prophet convey [the Message] to you?' They shall reply, no. Then he shall be asked, 'Did you convey [the Message] to your people?' and he shall reply, yes. Then he shall be asked, 'Who is your witness?' and he shall reply, 'Muhammad and his Community.' Whereupon Muhammad and his Community shall be summoned and asked, 'Did this man convey [the Message] to his people?' They shall reply, yes. They shall be asked, 'How do you know?' They shall reply, 'Our Prophet came to us and told us that the Messengers have indeed conveyed [the Message].' This is [the meaning of] His saying, [Thus We have appointed you a middle nation] - He means upright (yaqûlu 'adlan) - [that you may be witnesses against mankind and that the messenger may be a witness against you] (2:143).".
It's strange how the very hadith that refutes the argument is cited. The Prophet's (peace be upon him) witnessing against mankind will occur on the Day of Judgment exactly as how the hadith illustrates!
Sam Shamoun said:
There are other verses that affirm that the Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, hears and sees the deeds of human beings. Allah Most High said: [And know that the Messenger of Allah is among you] (49:7). In the verses [Allah and His Messenger will see your conduct] (9:94) and [Act! Allah will behold your actions, and (so will) His Messenger and the believers] (9:105), the Prophet's, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, perception IS PUT ON A PAR WITH THAT OF THE LORD OF THE WORLDS Who sees and encompasses all on the one hand and, on the other, that of all the living believers.
Imam Al Tabari states that Surah 49:7 was specifically for the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him), however it could also be understood as meaning that the Prophet (peace be upon him) is with us through his teachings and Sunnah still being present with us, for this is the way that other verses like Surah 3:101 have been understood by scholars like Al Qurtubi (see here).
As for 9:94 and 9:105 one may check any commentary to see the historical context of these verses and observe that these were specifically relating to the hypocrites during the Prophet's (peace be upon him) time.
Sam Shamoun said:
Haddad says that Muhammad was given the knowledge of all things while on earth, prior to his death:
The Prophet, sall-Allahu `alayhi wa sallam, said: "My Lord came to me in the best form" - the narrator said: "I think he said: 'in my sleep'" - "and asked me over what did the Higher Assembly (al-mala' al-a'lâ) vie; I said I did not know, so He put His hand between my shoulders, and I felt its coolness in my innermost, and knowledge of all things between the East and the West came to me." (Underline emphasis ours)
This means that Muhammad was omniscient even while alive on earth!
Despite the fact that all the chains of transmission for this narration have problems with it (see here for a detailed analysis), the narration from Mu'adh ibn Jabal, which is argued to be the most authentic says that "everything will unveiled to me". However, the context of the hadith itself makes it clear that it was everything in relation to what the Higher Assembly vie and not literally everything.
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