The claim that the Prophet (peace be upon him) allowed himself to drink alcohol and perform ablution with it while prohibiting as such for his nation
Bayaan al-Islam Team
(Original article in Arabic located here)
Gist Translation by:
Abu Nadm al-Zahiri
The Gist of this Doubt:
Some of those who wish to sow the seeds of doubt falsely allege that the Prophet (peace be upon him) violated that which he legislated to his nation. Specifically, they claim that he did not adhere to his own prohibition of drinking alcohol, claiming as evidence the narration in which he consumed an alcoholic drink known as “nabidh” in shelter of the tribe of Sa’idah while he was delivering a brief sermon to one of the tribe’s womenfolk. They also claim that he (peace be upon him) performed his ritual ablutions with alcohol when he couldn’t find water. They then ask rhetorically: isn’t this a clear contradiction between what he practiced and what he preached? Their goals behind this claim is to stigmatize him (peace be upon him) as someone who would violate his own precepts.
The Angle from which this Doubt is Refuted:
- It is not established authentically that the Prophet ever performed his ablutions with this drink known as nabidh; rather, in the absence of water he (peace be upon him) legislated the practice of “tayammum,” or a lesser ablution with dust. Upon further investigation as well, the nabidh drink which is in question in this narration is non-intoxicating, and thus does not fall under the prohibition of drinks which cause intoxication – as that is the actual text of the narration prohibiting such drinks. Thus the ruling of prohibition does not fall upon this specific drink.
- The multitude of routes by which the prohibition of intoxicants are to be found in the Qur’an and the prophetic tradition known as the “Sunnah” and the severity of the punishment for those who drink in both this worldly life and the hereafter clearly nullify the possibility that he (peace be upon him) consumed such substances, for he was the transmitter of Islamic law and the example for all Muslims starting from the first generation.
- This libel is typical of the attitude which the People of the Book take toward the prophets in their own altered and tainted holy books, and so they are only applying the same accusations which they make against other prophets against the final prophet (peace be upon him) with yet another falsehood.
A Detailed Response:
First of all, it is not authentically established that the Prophet (peace be upon him) ever performed ablutions with nabidh. This is in addition to the fact that the drink in question was non-intoxicating and thus doesn’t fall under the prohibition to begin with.
There are no authentic, historically verified narrations of the Prophet drinking or performing ablution with alcohol; rather, what is reported is that he (peace be upon him) once performed ablution with nabidh made from dates, and even this narration isn’t authentic. The contemporary historiographer Albani found all chains of transmission in the collections of Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah to contain defects. Likewise, the author of the book Mishkat al-Masabih also found these defects in the narrations of Ibn Mas’ud and Ibn Abbas (may God be pleased with them), including the narration in which Ibn Mas’ud was said to be physically present with the Prophet (peace be upon him) during his encounter with a group of demonic spirits.
The scholars of historiography have not accepted this aforementioned narration due to the defects in its chain of transmission, in addition to the fact that the same incident is reported with a more reliable chain in which Ibn Mas’ud was not even said to be present during the encounter at all.
The majority rejects this narration of ablution with nabidh due to the statement of God: “O ye who believe! Draw not near unto prayer when ye are drunken, till ye know that which ye utter, nor when ye are polluted, save when journeying upon the road, till ye have bathed. And if ye be ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from the closet, or ye have touched women, and ye find not water, then go to high clean soil and rub your faces and your hands (therewith). Lo! Allah is Benign, Forgiving.”
They additionally prove their point with the authentic narration:
“Clean earth is a means for ablution for a Muslim, even for ten years (he does not find water); but when you find water, you should make it touch your skin, for that is better.”
This is proof that there is no replacement for water in ablution other than pure earth. This is what Almighty God legislated, what His Messenger acted upon and what the Muslim nation has accepted. So in the absence of water, the Messenger (peace be upon him) performed tayammum instead per the word of God: “O ye who believe! When ye rise up for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and lightly rub your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. And if ye are unclean, purify yourselves. And if ye are sick or on a journey, or one of you cometh from the closet, or ye have had contact with women, and ye find not water, then go to clean, high ground and rub your faces and your hands with some of it. Allah would not place a burden on you, but He would purify you and would perfect His grace upon you, that ye may give thanks.”
This is proof that tayammum is an obligatory act in the absence of water, and numerous reports confirming this are also to be found in the Prophetic tradition. From them is:
“And he made the Earth’s dust a purifier for us in case water is not available.”
"Pure clean earth is a purifier for the Muslim; even if he did not find water for ten years. Then if he finds water, let him use it (for purification) on his skin. For, that is better."
Thus the Prophet (peace be upon him) would perform tayammum when he couldn’t find water for ablution, and he ordered his nation to do the same as indicated by numerous reports. From them:
“After he finished from the prayer, he saw a man sitting aloof who had not prayed with the people. He asked, "O so and so! What has prevented you from praying with us?" He replied, "I am Junub and there is no water. " The Prophet said, "Perform Tayammum with (clean) earth and that is sufficient for you."
This indicates the obligation of tayammum in the absence of water regardless of whether the person is affected by a major or minor impurity.
Also the narration:
“We set out on a journey. One of our people was hurt by a stone that injured his head. He then had a sexual dream. He asked his fellow travelers: Do you find a concession for me to perform tayammum? They said: We do not find any concession for you while you can use water. He took a bath and died. When we came to the Prophet (saws), the incident was reported to him. He said: They killed him, may Allah kill them! Could they not ask when they did not know? The fire of ignorance is inquiry. It was enough for him to perform tayammum and to pour some drops of water or bind a bandage over the wound (the narrator Musa was doubtful); then he should have wiped over it and washed the rest of his body.”
These narrations also indicate the permissibility of performing tayammum for a person who fears that normal ablution with water could somehow damage their health.
On top of all this, the nabidh drink mentioned in these narrations isn’t the kind which actually intoxicates and inebriates – therefore, it doesn’t take the ruling of an intoxicating drink under Islamic law. Some people are either ignorant of this or pretend to be ignorant of this, ignoring the obvious difference between the drink mentioned in the authentic reports and the kind of drink which causes a person to become drunk.
“Khamr,” an Arabic word used for several different drinks, actually takes the root meaning of any ingested substance which causes one’s reason to subside.
“O people, there was revealed (the command pertaining to the prohibition of wine) and it was prepared (at that time) out of five things: grape, date, honey, wheat, barley, and wine is that which clouds the intellect.”
Umar made this statement whilst being surrounded by the eldest of the first generation of Muslims, and none of them spoke against what he had said nor have the Muslims – past and present – gone against this statement. Muslim collected the following:
“Every intoxicant is Khamr and every intoxicant is forbidden.”
“Every intoxicant is Khamr and every Khamr is forbidden.”
So all categories of “khamr” are prohibited, regardless of how much the person imbibes. The one who drinks it is to be punished whether or not he became intoxicated. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
“Every intoxicant is forbidden; if any amount of anything causes intoxication, that amount of it is forbidden.”
Thus every intoxicant is considered to be “khamr” regardless of whether or not it came from grapes, dates, olives, onions, barley, corn or anything else. The expression is not about the name; it’s about the intoxication. The Prophet spoke about people who play games and try to promote intoxicants by naming them other than “khamr” by saying:
“Some of my people will assuredly drink wine calling it by another name.”
Intoxicants are damaging to one’s health, a leech upon one’s wallet, a deterrent to the brotherhood of man, the beloved of Satan, an obstacle to the remembrance of God, a suppressant of the intellect which is the greatest of God’s gifts to man and a cause to assault one’s fellow man verbally and physically. It is the mother of all sins, and thus it’s no surprise that Islam forbids it for the sake of the society, its piety and its safety.
As for the drink known as “nabidh,” then it refers to processed drinks made with water, buttermilk and the like, and it comes in many different types:
- Naqir – made from the part of a palm tree where the roots connect to the base
- Bit’ – a drink made from honey and dates
- Mizr – a drink made from barley
These are only some of the kinds of drink known collectively as “nabidh.” There are a number of prophetic narrations affirming their prohibition in Islam such as:
“Abu Musa reported: Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) sent me and Mu'adh b. Jabal to Yemen. I said: God's Messenger, there is prepared in our land a wine out of barley which is known as Mizr and a wine from honey which is known as Bit’, are these also forbidden? Whereupon he said: Every intoxicant is forbidden.”
"I order you to do four things and forbid you from four things: I order you to believe in Allah. Do you know what is meant by belief in God? It is to testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, to offer prayers perfectly, to give Zakat, and to give Al-Khumus (one-fifth of the war booty) (in Allah's Cause). And I forbid you four things, (i.e., Do not drink alcoholic drinks) Ad-Dubba, An- Naqir, (pitched water skins), Az-Zuruf, Al-Muzaffat and Al--Hantam (names of utensils used for the preparation of alcoholic drinks)."
There is also the narration of Aisha, may God be pleased with her:
“God's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was asked about Bit'i, whereupon he said: Every drink that causes intoxication is forbidden.”
Even clearer than that is the statement of the Prophet (peace be upon him):
“I forbade you to visit graves, but you may now visit them; I forbade you to eat the flesh of sacrificial animals after three days, but you may now keep it as along as you feel inclined; and I forbade you nabidh except in a water-skin, you may drink it from all kinds of water-skins, but you must not drink anything intoxicating.”
As well as:
“He who amongst you drinks Nabidh should drink that (prepared either from) grapes alone, or from dates alone, or from unripe dates alone (and not by mixing them with one another).”
Thus the reality of the difference between “khamr” and “nabidh” should be apparent as well as the different rulings in Islamic law for drinking them. Thus to claim that they’re the same thing and carry the same ruling is simply an immature grasping at straws.
Second of all, the severity of the punishment for someone who consumes alcoholic beverages negates the possibility that the Prophet (peace be upon him) could have consumed such beverages or performed ritual ablution with them, as he is considered the example for all mankind to follow. Thus, because of the social destruction which alcohol inflicts upon the Earth, Islamic law has forbidden it. Alcohol consumption is a calamity upon any society, and Islam waged war upon this evil until it was eventually rendered illegal under divine law: “Satan seeketh only to cast among you enmity and hatred by means of strong drink and games of chance, and to turn you from remembrance of Allah and from (His) worship. Will ye then have done? Obey Allah and obey the messenger, and beware! But if ye turn away, then know that the duty of Our messenger is only plain conveyance (of the message).”
This prohibition descended through revelation after the Muslims had realized the harms of this beverage and that those harms outweigh the benefits. They witnessed the damage to the human liver in addition to the alterations in behavior, and thus Almighty God revealed: “O ye who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan's handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed.”
Thus the prohibition was a severe one as God noted while mentioning the wisdom behind it, explaining that it increases human beings in aggression and conflict, and prevents them from remembrance of their Lord. Alcohol suppresses the conscience and humanity of the individual, and effectively puts them into a waking slumber in which they can’t differentiate between right and wrong and leave off worship of their Creator; these results are sufficient for a thing to be outlawed.
When the prohibition for alcohol was revealed to the Prophet, the town crier ran through the streets informing the people of Medina. They complied, tossing out all the alcoholic beverages they had until the streets were stained with the substance. Thus Islam experienced a total success in curing this societal ill. Some nations in the modern era – the United States being an example – have attempted to legislate bans on the production and sale of alcoholic beverages and failed. Of what worth are the laws of man, though, in light of the laws of the divine? Take note, oh people of understanding.
When the prohibition was revealed, some people asked about the situation of those who had died of natural causes or while fighting injustice and were drinkers. Thus the verse was revealed: “There shall be no sin (imputed) unto those who believe and do good works for what they may have eaten (in the past). So be mindful for your duty (to Allah), and do good works; and again; be mindful your duty, and believe; and once again: be mindful your duty, and do right, Allah loveth the good.”
Thus the verse pardoned those who had drunk alcohol before its prohibition, and it isn’t a license for the consumption of alcoholic beverages after the verses of prohibition; that contradicts piety and fear of God.
There are also numerous prophetic narrations indicating the strong emphasis of the Prophet on the prohibition of alcohol:
- “Every intoxicant is Khamr and every intoxicant is forbidden.”
- “Messenger of God! We live in a cold land in which we do heavy work and we make a liquor from wheat to get strength from if for our work and to stand the cold of our country. He asked: Is it intoxicating? I replied: Yes. He said: You must avoid it. I said: The people will not abandon it. He said: If they do not abandon it, fight with them.”
- "The Messenger of God cursed ten involved in wine: The one who presses it, the one who has it pressed, its drinker, its carrier, and the one it is carried to, its server, its seller, the consumption of its price, the one who purchases it and the one it was purchased for." 
- “Whoever drinks Khamr, whip him; then if he drinks (again), whip him; then if he drinks (again), whip him; then if he drinks (again), kill him."
- “Abdullah bin Ad-Dailami said: "I entered upon 'Abdullah bin 'Amr bin Al-'As when he was in a garden of his in At-Ta'if called Al-Waht. He was walking and holding hands with a young man of Quraish who was suspected of drinking Khamr. He said: 'I heard the Messenger of God say: Whoever drinks Khamr once, his repentance will not be accepted for 40 days, then if he repents, Allah will accept his repentance. If he does it again, his repentance will not be accepted for 40 days, then if he repents, God will accept his repentance. If he does it again, his repentance will not be accepted for 40 days, then if he repents, God will accept his repentance. If he does it again (a fourth time), then it is a right upon God to make him drink from the mud of Khibal on Judgment Day."
The Prophet (peace be upon him) would also warn those who encouraged people upon good and forbid them from evil while not living up to such standards themselves.
“A man will be brought on Judgment Day and cast down into Hell and his intestines will pour forth as he will tumble along with them, like a donkey goes round the mill stone. The denizens of Hell would gather round him and say: O, so and so, what has happened to you? Were you not enjoining us to do what was reputable and forbid us to do what was disreputable? He will say: Of course, it is so; I used to enjoin (upon people) to do what was reputable but did not practice that myself. I had been forbidding people to do what was disreputable, but practiced it myself.”
This is his warning, peace be upon him, so is it logically possible that he would contradict his own statement despite his honesty, piety and transcendence beyond lying being attested to? He fought a proverbial war against alcohol, upholding its prohibition and even devising a severe punishment for the one who consumes it. While the Qur’an itself did not specify a punishment for the drinker, he (peace be upon him) delineated it at forty lashes, just as the first Caliph Abu Bakr did after others of the first generation of Muslims informed him that they all agreed the number had been forty – this includes the narration of Abu Sa’id al-Khudri on the topic.
Thus, we come to understand his (peace be upon him) severity in the prohibition of alcohol via both his statements and actions; this was the same no matter what nickname the drinker gave his drink, no matter the amount and the purpose (whether for intoxication or medication). It isn’t logical to assume that a person who dealt with alcohol in this way would simply allow it for himself while being so severe upon others for consuming it!
Third of all, the accusations of the Christians and Jews against the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) of imbibing alcohol is actually their general attitude with all other prophets as seen in their altered, tainted holy books.
It is from the strangest of things that these people accuse the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) of such things when they themselves believe in holy books which allow the consumption of alcohol and even ascribe that to the prophets to an extent which is certainly not found in Islamic texts. These are just some of the examples from the New Testament which we quote here for the sake of comparison:
“And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there: And both Jesus was called, and his disciples, to the marriage. And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine. Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine hour is not yet come. His mother saith unto the servants, Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it. And there were set there six waterpots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins apiece. Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim. And he saith unto them, Draw out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast. And they bare it. When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not whence it was: (but the servants which drew the water knew;) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom, and saith unto him, Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine; and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse: but thou hast kept the good wine until now. This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory; and his disciples believed on him.”
“The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and you say, ‘Here is a glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners.’”
Take note that the “son of man” referred to here is none other than Jesus, described by these verses as a drinker and a brewer of wine, yet the missionaries describe Muhammad in the same way – God forbid. These are merely attempts to fabricate and slander the prophets as they are presented in Islamic texts just like the missionaries have slandered the prophets in their own texts. All of the prophets, without exception, are transcended above such behavior as God has prevented them from falling into error.
The Bottom Line
- There is not a single historically authentic narration of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) performing ritual ablution with “nabidh,” and his verified tradition was ritual ablution with dust in the absence of water. Furthermore, scrutiny demonstrates that “nabidh” does not take the ruling of alcohol under Islamic law.
- Islam has taken a clear, strong stance against alcohol and cursed ten from those involved in it – one being the drinker and the other nine being those involved with facilitation of it. Our faith has mandated a punishment both now and in the afterlife for the drinker, and it simply isn’t possible that the Prophet (peace be upon him) would prohibit alcohol so stronglyو yet then turn around and drink it himself.
- It is an established habit of the Jews and Christians per their own forged, altered holy books to accuse the prophets of all sorts of debauchery and behavioral deficiencies, so it follows naturally from this immoral practice that they would then level the same accusation against Muhammad. They are merely doing with the last prophet what they did with all the others, dishonestly and oppressively.
 Refutation of the Doubts of the Missionaries Regarding Islam, Cairo: Markaz at-Tanwir al-Islami, 2008.
 Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, narrations of the Ansar, narrations of the elders from Ubay bin Ka’b, no. 21408. Sunan Abi Dawud, Book of Purification, Chapter: The Sexually Impure Person Performing Tayammum, no. 333. See also Albani’s Sahih al-Jami’ no. 1666.
 Sahih Muslim, in the beginning of the Book of Mosques and Places of Prayer, no. 1193.
 Sunan at-Tirmidhi, Book on Purification, Chapter: [What has Been Related] About Tayammum For The Junub Person When He Does Not Find Water, no. 124. Irwa` al-Ghalil of Albani, 153.
 Sahih al-Bukhari, Book of Rubbing hands and feet with dust (Tayammum), Chapter: Clean earth is sufficient for a Muslim as a substitute for water for ablution (if he does not find water), no. 337 in addition to other places. Sahih Muslim, Book on The Book of Mosques and Places of Prayer, Chapter: Compensation Of The Missed Prayer And Excellence Of Observing It Promptly, no. 1595. The expressions used here is Bukhari’s.
 Sunan Abi Dawud, Book of Purification, Chapter: The Wounded Person Performing Tayammum, no. 336. Sunan al-Baihaqi al-Kubra, Book of Purification, Chapter: An injury if it only affects a certain part of the body, no. 1115. Albani declared this narration acceptable in his grading of Abu Dawud’s Sunan, see no. 325.
 Dr. Wahba az-Zuhaili, Islamic Jurisprudence and its Evidences, vol. 1, pgs. 407-408. Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1409H/1989A, 3rd ed.
 Sahih al-Bukhari, Book on Prophetic Commentary on the Qur'an (Tafseer of the Prophet (pbuh)), Chapter on the Qur’anic chapter of al-Ma`idah, no. 4343 in addition to other places. Sahih Muslim, chapter on exegesis, section on the descent of the prohibition on alcohol, no. 7745. The expression used here is Muslim’s.
 Sahih Muslim, Book of drinks, Chapter: Every intoxicant is Khamr and all Khamr is Haram, prohibited, no. 5336.
 Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, remainder of the narrations of the Ansar, narration of our lady A’isha (may God be pleased with her), no. 24,476. Sunan Abi Dawud, Book on drinks, Chapter: What has been reported regarding Intoxicants, no. 3689. Albani verified the narration in his Sahih al-Jami’, no. 5531.
 Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, remainder of the narrations of the Ansar, narration of Abu Malik al-Ash’ari (may God be pleased with him), no. 22,951. Sunan Abi Dawud, Book on Drinks, Chapter: Regarding ad-Dadhi. Albani verified the narration in as-Silsilah as-Sahihah, no. 414.
 Dr. Muhammad Muhammad Abu Shahbah, as-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, vol. 2, pgs. 354-355. Damascus: Dar al-Qalam, 1408H/1998A, 8th ed.
 Sahih al-Bukhari, Book on Military Expeditions led by the Prophet (pbuh) (Al-Maghaazi), Chapter: Sending Abu Musa and Mu'adh to Yemen, no. 4087. Sahih Muslim, Book of Drinks, Chapter: Every intoxicant is Khamr and all Khamr is Haram, no. 5332. The expression used here is the one found by Bukhari.
 Sahih al-Bukhari, Book on Military Expeditions led by the Prophet (pbuh) (Al-Maghaazi), Chapter: The delegation of ‘Abdul-Qais, no. 4110. Sahih Muslim, Book of faith, Chapter: The command to believe in Allah and His Messenger (saws) and the laws of Islam, calling people to it, asking about it, memorizing it and conveying it to those who have not heard the message, no. 124.
 Sahih al-Bukhari, Book of Drinks, Chapter: Alcoholic drinks prepared from honey, no. 5263. Sahih Muslim, Book of Drinks, Chapter: Every intoxicant is Khamr and all Khamr is Haram, no. 5330.
 Sahih Muslim, Book of Prayer - Funerals, Chapter: The prophet (saws) asked his Lord for permission to visit the grave of his mother, no. 2305.
 Sahih Muslim, Book on Drinks, Chapter: It is disliked to make Nabidh by mixing dried dates and raisins, no. 5267.
 Refutation of the Slander of the Missionaries Against Islam, pgs. 139 and 141. Cairo: Markaz at-Tanwir al-Islami, 2008.
 Al-Ma`idah, verses 90-91.
 Al-Ma`idah, verse 90.
 Muhammad Abu Zahrah, Khatim an-Nabiyyin sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, pgs. 667-668. Cairo: Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi, 1425H/2004A, 2nd ed.
 Al-Ma`idah, verse 93.
 Dr. Muhammad Muhammad Abu Shuhbah, as-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, vol. 2, pg. 354. Damascus: Dar al-Qalam, 1408H/1998A, 8th ed.
 Sahih Muslim, Book of Drinks, Chapter: Every intoxicant is Khamr and all Khamr is Haram, no. 5336.
 Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, chapter of the Levantines, section of ad-Dailami al-Humairi (may God be pleased with him), no. 18,064. Sunan Abi Dawud, Book on drinks, Chapter: What has been reported regarding Intoxicants, no. 3,685; al-Albani verified this narration in Mishkaat al-Masabih, no. 3651.
 Sunan at-Tirmidhi, Book on business transactions, Chapter: The prohibition of using intoxicants as vinegar, no. 1295. Sunan Ibn Majah, Book on drinks, Chapter: Alcohol being curses from ten different angles, no. 3381. Al-Albani said in Sahih at-Targhib wa at-Tarhib that the narration is of an acceptable level, no. 2357.
 Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, chapter of Companions who reported an exceptionally high number of narrations, section of Abu Hurairah (may God be pleased with him), no. 7748. Mujtaba an-Nasa`i, chapter on drinks, section on the verses censuring alcohol, no. 5661. Al-Albani verified this narration in Sahih al-Jami’, no. 6309.
 Sunan Abi Dawud, Book on drinks, Chapter: What has been reported regarding Intoxicants, no. 3682. Mujtaba an-Nasa`i, chapter on drinks, section on repentance from drinking alcohol, no. 5670. Al-Albani verified this narration in Silsilah as-Sahihah, no. 2039.
 Sahih al-Bukhari, Book Beginning of Creation, Chapter: The description of the (Hell) Fire and the fact that it has already been created, no. 3094. Sahih Muslim, The Book of Zuhd and Softening of Hearts, Chapter: The punishment for the one who commands good and forbids evil but does neither of the above, no. 7674.
 An-Nawawi, Riyadh as-Salihin, pgs. 77-78. Cairo: Dar Ibn al-Jawzi, 2006.. 1st ed.
 Abdul-Qadir Awdah, at-Tashri’ al-Jaza`i as-Islami Muqarinan bil-Qanun al-Wad’I, vol. 2, pg. 506. Beirut: Mu`assasah ar-Risalah, 1406H/1986A, 7th ed.