"Based on this interpretation, the meaning of this hadith is: The child is created free from kufr on the covenant that Allah took from the descendants of Adam when He extracted them from his loins." 
Ibn Taimiyyah was asked about the Prophet's statement,
"Every child is born upon the fitrah (the natural disposition to believe in the oneness of God)," 
and he said,
"The correct stance is that it is Allah's disposition that He created mankind upon. It is the natural disposition of Islam. It is the natural disposition that He set them upon on the day He said, 'Am I not your Lord?' They said, 'Certainly [you are]" (al-Araaf 172)."'
He also said,
"It is not necessary that their being born upon the natural disposition means that they are at the time of their birth believing in Islam in practice. Allah takes us out of the wombs of our mothers while we know nothing. However, the heart is pure and it accepts and desires the truth which is Islam, to the point that if it were left without any alteration it would accept nothing other than being a Muslim." 
He also said,
"The messengers were sent to affirm and complete the fitrah and not to change or modify the fitrah." 
The Second Opinion:
"The fitrah is the beginning upon which Allah begins them. In other words, it is what Allah began His creation upon as He started them for life and death, happiness and misery and what they become when they reach the age of puberty." 
Imam Ahmad was of this opinion but then he recanted and followed the first opinion stated above.
Ibn Abdul Barr  stated,
"The reports that Malik recorded in his Muwatta and mentioned in the Chapter on Qadar (Predestination) indicate that his opinion on this matter was of this nature.'" 
They offer the following verse as evidence for this position:
"Such as He created you in the beginning, so shall you return. Some He has guided. Others have (by their choice) deserved the loss of their way" (al-Araaf 29-30).
The Third Opinion:
This opinion states that the verse and the hadith are not in reference to all of mankind. The meaning of "al-nass (the people, humans)" here is only the believers. If everyone had the disposition towards Islam, no one would ever become a disbeliever while it is confirmed that some people have been created for the Hell-fire. As Allah has said,
"Many are the Jinns and men We have made for Hell" (al-Araaf 179). 
The Fourth Opinion:
The fitrah is the natural disposition upon which the child is born giving him the ability to recognize his lord.
In other words, every child is born upon a natural disposition via which he recognizes his lord when he is conveyed the information about Him. Hence, this is a natural disposition that differs from the natural instincts of animals that do not take them to the point of recognizing their lord. The people of this view cite the verses in which the word faatir is used to mean creator. For example, Allah says,
"Praise be to Allah, Who created (faatir) (out of nothing) the heavens and the earth" (Faatir 1).
Allah also says,
''It would not be reasonable in me if I did not serve Him Who created me (fatarani)" (Yaaseen 22).
The first opinion is the strongest due to the strength of its evidence. Regardless of which of these opinions is strongest, they all agree that the fitrah is the origin by which humans come into life and it is not a source of aqeedah or beliefs. It is the innate disposition that is prepared to accept the sound beliefs once such reaches him via the books or the messengers by which Allah establishes the proof against mankind,
"That mankind, after (the coming) of the Messengers, should have no plea against Allah" (al-Nisaa 165).
The Fifth Point:
The verses that mention Allah's blessing about man by making his creation excellent, fashioning him in the best of molds and breathing into him of a spirit from Allah, do not contain any indication that humans themselves are a source and authority. A source is that from which humans derive their beliefs and practical laws. It is not possible that the human himself is a source for such laws as he is wont to follow his desires and cravings and other internal and external influences. It seems to be the case that by making humans-including the fitrah-one of the sources of the Shareeah, they are simply trying to magnify the role of the human intellect and reasoning.
"Whoever studies their writings with a critical eye will note that they are greatly concerned with logic and rational arguments. They give them precedence over the Quran and Sunnah." 
1) Authority (hujjiyah) means, "disclosing, uncovering and indicating. It is binding to act upon what it indicates as such is considered the judgment of Allah." Abdul Ghani Abdul Khaaliq, Hujjiyah al-Sunnah, p. 244.
2) See, for example, al-Shaatibi, al-Muwaafaqaat, vol. 2, p. 345; ibn Qudaamah, Raudhah al-Naadhir, p. 61; Fawaatih al-Rahamoot, vol. 2, p. 2; al-Badakhshi, Manaahij al-Uqool and al-Asnawi, Nihaayah al-Sool, both being commentaries on al-Baidhaawi, Minhaaj al-Wusool, vol. 1, p. 39.
3) He was Saif al-Deen Abu ai-Hasan Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Saalim al-Taghlabi, a legal theorist and researcher. He was originally from Aamad. He was born there and studied in Baghdad and al-Shaam. He then moved to Cairo. He authored more than twenty writings, including al-Ihkaamfi Usool al-Ahkaam. He died in 631 A.H. Cf., al-Alaam, vol. 4, p. 332.
4) lhkaam fi Usool al-Ahkaam, vol. 1, p. 227.
5) Al-Mustasfa, vol. 1, p. 100; cf., ibn Qudaamah, Raudhah al-Naadhir, p. 61.
6) lhkaam fi Usool al-Ahkaam, vol. 1, p. 227.
7) Al-Hujiyyaat, pp. 3-4.
8) Cf., Shukri Mustafa, al-Hujjiyaat, pp. 190-191.
9) Recorded by al-Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Dawood.
10) Shukri Mustafa, al-Hujjiyyaat, p. 5.
11) Cr., Muhammad Suroor, al-Hukum Bi-Ghair ma Anzalallah, p. 124.
12) Al-Qurtubi, al-Jaami li-Ahkaam al-Quran, vol. 2, p. 201.
13) Al Qurtubi, al-Jaami li-Ahkaam al-Quraan, vol. 2, p. 202.
14) Al Qurtubi, al-Jaami li-Ahkaam al-Quraan, vol. 15, p. 191.
15) Cf., Al-Qurtubi, al-Jaami li-Ahkaam al-Quraan, vol. 11, p. 276.
16) Recorded by al-Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Dawood.
17) Ibn Abdul Barr, al-Tamheed, vol. 18, p. 72. Cf., ibn Taimiyyah, vol. 8, p. 367; ibn Hajar, al-Fath, vol. 3, p. 248.
18) He was Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Shihaab al-Zuhri, the first to make a systematic recording of hadith. He was one of the leading gatherers of knowledge and jurists among the generation of the Followers. He was from the people of Madinah. He died in 124 A.H. Cf., al-Alaam, vol.7, p. 97.
19) Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Baari, vol. 3, p. 248.
20) Recorded by al-Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Dawood.
21) Recorded by Muslim.
22) Recorded by Muslim.
23) He was Iyyaadh ibn Himaar ibn Naajiyyah ibn Uqaal al-Majaashi. He was a Companion. He has hadith found in Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abi Dawood and Sunan al- Tirmidhi. He lived in Basrah and a number of the Followers narrated hadith from him. Cf., al-Isaabah, vol. 7, p. 185.
24) Recorded by Muslim.
25) Al-Qurtubi, al-jaami li-Ahkaam al-Quran, vol. 14, p. 25.
26) Recorded by al-Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Dawood.
27) Ibn Taimiyyah, al-Fataawa, vol. 4, p. 245.
28) Ibn Taimiyyah, al-Fataawa, vol. 4, p. 247. Cf., what Ibn Hajar quoted from al-Teebi in Fath al-Baari, vol. 3, p. 249.
29) Ibn Taimiyyah, al-Fataawa, vol. 10, p. 135.
30) Al-Qurtubi, al-Jaami li-Ahkaam al-Quraan, vol. 14, p. 25.
31) He was Abu Umar Y oosuf ibn Abdillah ibn Muhammad ibn Abdil Barr al-Namri al-Qurtubi, the Maliki. He was one of the greatest gatherers of knowledge and a jurist. He was a historian and a man of letters. He was called the haafidh of the West. He was born in Cordoba in 368 A.H. He traveled through Andalus on a lengthy journey. He acted as a judge in many of its lands. He died in Shaatibah in 463 A.H. He wrote many famous works, including al- Tamheed lima fi al-Muwatta min al-Maani wa al-Asaaneed. Cf., Siyar Alaam al-Nubalaa, vol. 18, p. 153; al-Alaam, vol. 8, p. 240.,
32) Al-Qurtubi, al-Jaami li-Ahkaam al-Quraan, vol. 14, p. 25.
33) Cf., al-Qurtubi, al-Jaami li-Ahkaam al-Quraan, vol. 14, p. 26.
34) Muhammad Suroor, al-Hukum bi-Chair ma Anzalallaah, p. 127.
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