"When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) preceded to Madinah, he stayed at the outskirts of Madinah in a district called the neighborhood of the Tribe of Amr ibn Auf. He stayed with them fourteen nights." 
During that time period, Fridays occurred. However, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not order them to perform the Friday Prayer until he left the Tribe of Amr ibn Auf heading towards Madinah. He performed the Friday Prayer along the journey when the time for prayer came in the mosque of the Tribe of Saalim ibn Auf in the valley of Raanoona. That was the first Friday Prayer that he prayed in Madinah. 
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) remaining during that period is proof that their performing it beforehand was in a permissible fashion and not an obligatory fashion.
(2) This is further indicated by the fact that the Companions performing the Friday Prayer was a result of their own request upon seeing the Jews gathering on Saturday and the Christians on Sunday. This point was made clear in the mursal report from ibn Seereen presented above. 
(3) The hadith [mentioned above] from ibn Abbaas recorded by al-Daaraqutni also gives the feeling that its ruling was something permissible. It states,
"It was made permissible for the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to pray the Friday Prayer before he migrated."
Permission indicates that its meaning was that of permissibility and not of obligation. This is also indicated by the narration from al-Zuhri that states that Musaab ibn Umair sought permission from the Prophet to gather the people and he gave him that permission. This makes clear the refutation of those who today say that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not pray it in Makkah because it was an era of oppression and weakness. In fact, it was not obligatory during that time and it would have been difficult to gather all of the people together, which is the case for the Friday Prayer. 
Secondly, if it is said that the Friday Prayer was made obligatory in Makkah, then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not perform it because he did not have the ability to have a public assembly in which there is a speech, like that of the Friday Prayer. Yes, it is true that the Companions would gather in the house of Al-Arqam ibn Abi Arqam. However, they would gather while they were hiding from the Quraish. The Muslim community in Makkah was very small in number and was being oppressed with the greatest forms of harm.
Furthermore, they were not given the permission to defend themselves. Instead, they were ordered to forgive, pardon, bear with patience, overlook the ignorance of the fools and forgive their evils while responding with kindness and refraining from force. [As Allah said about that era,]
"Refrain your hands [from fighting] and establish the prayers..." (al-Nisaa 77). 
Thirdly, making an analogy between contemporary Muslim society and the jaahili society, equating between the two on the basis of kufr, shirk and jaahiliyyah, is a false analogy as it is built upon the premise of declaring today's Muslims disbelievers. The statement that the Friday Prayers are to be halted is built upon this.
What is built upon a false premise is also, therefore, false. Fourthly, equating their leader Shukri Mustafa with the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), based on the claim that both of them are the leaders of the Muslims, is a false equalization. This is because their leader was not the leader of the Muslims. In fact, he was the leader of a group only.
Even if he we argue that the Imam being weak and oppressed implies that the Friday Prayer is to be dropped, that is not to be applied to what they applied it to as their leader was not the leader of the Muslims.
Fifthly, being in a state of weakness and oppression does not mean that the leader is not established in the earth, as they claim.
Instead, it means that the disbelievers have control and power over the necks of the Muslims. If that is the case, such oppression and weakness does not exist in contemporary times as the mosques have their doors wide open and the Friday Prayers are established in all of the mosques of the Muslims.
Allah knows best.
1) He was Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Qudaamah al-Jamaaeeli, a jurist from among the greatest of the Hanbalis. He was bom in 541 A.H. and traveled seeking knowledge to Baghdad and elsewhere. He authored a number of beneficial works, including al-Mughni and Raudhah al-Naadhir. He died in 620 A.H. Cf., Siyar Alaam al-Nubalaa. Vol. 22, p.165; al-Alaam, Vol. 4, p. 67.
2) Al-Mughni. vol. 3, p. 158.
3) He was Abu Abdillah Taariq ibn Shihaab ibn Abd Shams al-Ahmasi, a warrior. He lived during the time of the prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and fought during the times of Abu Bakr and Umar. He lived in Kufah and narrated some hadith from the Companions. He died in 83 A.H. Cf., Siyar Alaam al-Nubalaa, vo1.3. p. 486; Tahdheeb al-Tahdheeb, Vol. 5, p. 3 al-Alaam, Vol. 3, p. 217.
4) Recorded by Abu Dawood. Its chain is broken as Taariq never heard any hadith directly from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), as Abu Dawood noted. However, this is not a defect that affects the validity of the hadith [since it is assumed that he heard it from another Companion and all the Companions are trustworthy a priori]. Therefore, it was graded sahih by a number of scholars, including al-Haakim - and al-Dhahabi agreed with him - and al-Nawawi, Cf., Nasb al-Raayah, vol. 2, p. 199. For a detailed discussion, see al-Albaani, Irwaa al-Ghaleel, Vol. 3, p. 50.
5) These include ibn Qudaamah, al-Mughni, vol. 3, p. 158; ibn al-Arabi, Sharh al-Tirmidhi, vol. 2, p. 288.
6) Cf., Rajab Madkoor, al-Takfeer wa al-Hijrah Wajhan li-Wajh, pp. 199-200.
7) He was Musaab ibn Umair ibn Haashim al-Qurashi, a Companion and a brave from the earliest Muslims. He embraced Islam in Makkah and kept his conversion secret. When his family found out about it, they imprisoned him. He then emigrated to Abbysinia. Then he returned to Makkah and emigrated to Madinah. He was a teacher for Muslims before the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) migrated to Madinah. He participated at Badr and became a martyr at Uhud. Cf., Siyar Alaam al-Nubalaa, vol. I, p. 145; al-Alaam, vol. 7, p. 248.
8) They attribute this report to the Tabaqaat of ibn Saad but I did not find it there. This hadith shall be discussed later.
9) He was Abu Abdillah al-Arqam ibn Abi al-Arqam Abd Manaf ibn Asad, a Companion of great nobility. He was one of the earliest Muslims. His house in Makkah was called, "the house of Islam." The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) would call people to Islam in his house. He participated in all of the battles and died in 55 A.H. Cf., al-Isaabah, vol. 1, p. 40; al-Alaam, vol. I, p. 288.
10) Quoted from Rajab Madkoor, Al-Takfeer wa al-Hijrah Wajhan li-Wajh, p. 200.
11) He was Kaab ibn Maalik ibn Amr ibn al-Qain, a Companion who participated at Badr. He was from the people of Madinah and a poet. He participated in all of the battles. Eighty hadith are narrated on his authority. He died in 50 A.H. Cf., al-Isaabah, vol. 8, p. 304; al-Alaam, vol. 5, f' 228.
12) He was Abu Umaamah Asad ibn Zuraarah ibn Uddas ibn Maalik al-Najaari al-Ansaari al-Khazraji, a Companion who embraced Islam very early. He witnessed both pledges of allegiance at Uqbah and he was one of the appointed leaders. He died before the Battle of Badr and was buried in al-Baqee cemetery. Cf., Siyar Alaam al-Nubalaa, vol. 1, p. 199; al-Isaabah, vol. I, p. 51; al-Alaam, vol. 1, p. 300.
13) The Tribe of Bayaadhah descended from Bayaadhah ibn Aamir ibn Zuraiq ibn Abd ibn Haarithah, one of the main tribes of the Khazraj from Azd. Cf., Umar Kahaalah, Mujam Qabaail ai-Arab, vol. 1, p. 112.
14) Recorded by Abu Dawood, ibn Maajah, al-Haakim, al-Baihaqi, who said that its chain is hasan sahih, and ibn Hishaam in al-Seerah. Ibn Hajar declared this hadith hasan in Talkhees al-Habeer (vol. 3, p. 68). Cf., al-Albaani, Irwaa al-Ghaleel, vol. 3, p. 67; al-Arnaaoot, footnotes to Zaad al-Maad, vol. 1, p. 373.
15) Cf., Rajab Mukhtaar Madkoor, Al-Takfeer wa al-Hijrah Wajhan li-Wajh, p. 200.
16) He was Muhammad ibn Saad al-Zuhri, a historian. He was born in Basrah and lived and died in Baghdad. He was a companion of and scribe for the historian al-Waaqidi. He also narrated from him. His most famous book is al-Tabaqaat. He died in 230 A.H. Cf., Siyar Alaam al-Nubalaa, vol. 5, p. 182; Tahdheeb al-Tahdheeb, vol. 9, p. 182; al-Alaam, vol. 6, p. 136.
17) In the Tabaqaat (vol. 3, p. 118), there is the story of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) writing to Musab ibn Umair and telling him to lead the first Friday Prayer in Madinah. However, it does not specifically state that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) could not perform it in Makkah due to his position Vis-a-Vis the polytheists, as the reported quoted above specifically states from Ibn Abbaas. Allah knows best.-JZ]
18) Recorded by ibn Saad in his Tabaqaat (vol. I, p. 239).
19) She was al-Nawaar bint Maalik ibn Sarmah from the tribe of al-Najaar. She was a Companion and she narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Cf., al-Isaabah, vol. 13, p. 155.
20) Sahl and Suhail were the owners of the [sheep or camel] pen. There is a difference of opinion as to whether they were the sons of Amr or of Raafi ibn Abi Amr. For that difference of opinion, see Ibn Hajr, al-Isaabah, vol. 4, p. 278. According to what ibn Saad mentioned here, Suhail was Suhail ibn Raafi. Ibn Ishaaq mentioned him among those who attended Badr and Uhud. Cf., al-Isaabah, vol. 4, p. 285. Sahl was also a Companion who attended Uhud. He died during the caliphate of Umar. Cf., al-Isaabah, vol. 4, p.274.
21) Recorded by ibn Saad, Tabaqaat, Vol. 3, p. 609.
22) He was Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Shirbeeni, a Shafi'ee jurist and Quranic commentator. He was from Egypt. He authored a number of books, including al-Siraaj al-Muneer and al-Iqnaa fi Hill Alfaadh Abi Shujaa. He died in 977 A.H. Cf., al-Alaam, vol. 3, p. 302.
23) He was Jalaal al-Deen Abdul Rahmaan ibn Abi Bakr ibn Muhammad al-Suyooti. He was an Imam, preserver of knowledge, historian and man of letters. He was encyclopedic in his knowledge and wrote numerous books, about a thousand in number, including both small and large works. He grew up as an orphan in Cairo and studied there. When he turned forty, he isolated himself from the people and wrote most of his works. He died in 911 A.H. Cf., al-Alaam, vol. 3, p. 302.
24) Cf., ibn Hajar al-Haitami, Tuhfah al-Muhtaaj bi-Sharh al-Minhaaj, vol. 2, p. 405; al-Shaukaani, Nail al-Autaar, vol. 3, p. 262; ibn Hajar, Fath al-Baari, vol.2, p. 354; Khaleel Ahmad al-Sahaarnfoori, Badhil al-Majhood, vol. 6, p. 47; al-Suyooti, al-Itqaan, vol. I, p. 49; Ahmad ibn Hajar, Ahkaam al-Jumuah wa Makaanatuhu, p. 33.
25) Al-Shaukaani, Nail al-Autaar, vol. 3, p. 262.
26) Al-Suyooti, al-Itqaan fi Uloom al-Quraan, vol. 1, p. 49.
27) This hadith has been attributed by a number of scholars, including ibn Hajar in Fath (vol. 2, p. 356) and Talkhees al-Habeer (vol. 2, p. 60) and al-Bahooti in Kishaaf al-Qinaa (vol. 2, p. 32) and others, to al-Daaraqtuni.
However, after searching, I did not find it therein. Then I found al-Albaani saying (Irwaa, vol. 3, p. 68), "I did not see it in Sunan al-Daaraqutni. Apparently, it is in one of his other books." He also said, "Its chain is hasan if the people after al-Mughirah are sound." Its chain is as follows, as stated in Talkhees al-Habeer (vol. 2, p. 60), "Al-Daaraqtuni narrated it from the chain of al-Mugheerah ibn Abdul Rahmaan on the authority of Malik on the authority of al-Zuhri on the authority of Ubaidullah on the authority of ibn Abbaas who said..."
28) Recorded by Abdul Razaaq in al-Musannaf (vol. 3, p. 160). Al-Zuhri also narrated from Abu Bakr ibn Abdul Rahmaan ibn al-Haarith ibn Hishaam on the authority of Abu Masood al-Ansaari a similar hadith that was recorded by al-Tabaraani in al-Ausat. Ibn Hajar said in Talkhees al-Habeer (vol. 2, p. 60), "In its chain is Saalih ibn Abi al-Akhdhar and he is weak." Cf., al-Albaani, Irwaa al-Ghaleel, vol. 3, p. 68.
29) Recorded by Abdul Razaaq in al-Musannaf (vol. 3, p. 60). Ibn Hajar (Fath, vol. 3, p. 255) stated, "Although it is mursal [missing the name of the Companion in the chain] it has supporting evidence with a hasan chain." He was referring to the previously mentioned hadith of Kaab ibn Maalik and the ninth verse of Soorah al-Jumuah. Note: Here there seems to be a problem. Some of the hadith state that Musaab ibn Umair led them in the Friday Prayer while others mention Asad ibn Zuraarah. The scholars have reconciled these differing hadith. Al-Baihaqi said, "It is possible that Musaab led them in the Friday Prayer with the support of Asad ibn Zuraarah, so Kaab ascribed it to him." (Quoted from al-Qurtubi, Al-Jaami li-Ahkaami al-Quraan, vol. 18, p. 98. Ibn Hajar said in Talkhees al-Habeer (vol.2, p. 60), "This hadith and the first are reconciled by saying that Asad was the one in charge while Musaab was the Imam." Al-Bahooti said something similar (Kishaaf al-Qinaa, vol. 1, p. 21). Al-Albaani said in Irwaa al-Ghaleel (vol. 3, p. 69), "It is possible to say that Musaab was the first to perform the Friday Prayer in Madinah itself while Asad was the first to perform the Friday Prayer in [the land of] the Tribe of Biyaadhah."
30) Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Baari, vol. 2, p. 354.
31) Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Baari, vol. 2, p. 354.
32) They were the clan of Saalim ibn Auf ibn Amr ibn al-Khazraj, a grandfather in the Days of Ignorance. Cf., al-Samaani, al-Ansaab, vol. 7, p.12; Jamharah Ansaab al-Arab, p. 353; al-Alaam, Vol. 3, p. 72.
33) Shaikh Abu Masood Rasheed al-Kankoohi, vol. 4, p. 2.
34) He was Moosa ibn Ahmad ibn Moosa al-Hujjaawi al-Maqdisi al-Saalihi, a Hanbali jurist from the people of Damascus. He was the mufti of the Hanbalis. He produced a number of works, the most famous being Zaad al-Mustaqna and al-Iqnaa. He died in 968 A.H. Cf., Ibn al-Imaad, Shadharaat al-Dhahab, vol. 8, p. 327; al-Alaam, vol. 7, p. 320.
35) See the introduction to al-Kishaaf, Vol. 1, p. 20.
36) What he means by, "in Makkah," is during the Makkan era. This is because it is agreed upon that it was not performed in the land of Makkah.
37) Al-Iqnaa, with it's commentary Kishaaf al-Qinaa, vol. 2, p. 21.
38) He was Abu Abdullah Urwah ibn al-Zubair ibn al-Awwaam, one of "the seven jurists of Madinah." He was a noble, pious scholar. He moved to Basrah, then to Egypt and then returned to Madinah. He died in 93 A.H. Cf., Siyar Alaam al-Nubalaa, Vol. 4, p. 421; al-Alaam, Vol. 4, p. 226.
39) Recorded by al-Bukhari.
40) Recorded by al-Bukhari.
41) For the details of the Prophet's journey to Madinah and his first Friday Prayer there, see Ibn Hishaam, al-Seerah al-Nabawiyyah, vol. 2, p. 121; Ibn al-Qayyim, Zaad al-Maad, vol. 3, p. 59; Ibn Katheer, al-Bidaayah wa al-Nihaayah, vol. 3, p. 198; Abdul Razaaq al-Munaawi, Sharh Alfiyyah al-Seerah al-Nabawiyyah, p. 81; Ali ibn Burhaan al-De en al-Halabi, al-Seerah alHalabiyyah, vol. 2, p. 242; al-Saalihi, Subul al-Hudaa wa al-Rashaad, vol. 3, p. 387; Muhammad Saadiq Arjoon, Muhammad Rasoolullaah, vol. 2, p. 581; Abu Turaab al-Dhaahiri, Al-Athar al-Muqtafi fi Hijrah al-Mustafa, pp. 42ff.
42) Cf., Khaleel Ahmad al-Sahaarnfoori, Badhil al-Majhood, vol. 6, p. 50.
43) I must state here that those scholars who say that the Friday Prayer was made obligatory in Madinah do not deny that it was performed during the Makkan era. In fact, ibn Hajar's words give the impression that he was of the opinion that it was done in a permissible fashion, although he did not explicitly state that. Cf., ibn Hajar, fath al-Baari, vol. 2, p. 356.
44) Cf., Ibn Hajar al-Haitami, Tuhfah al-Muhtaaj, vol. 2, p. 405; Ali ibn Burhaan al-Deen al-Halabi, al-Seerah al-Halabiyyah, vol. 2, p. 243; Muhammad Saadiq Arjoon, Muhammad Rasoolullaah, vol. 2, p. 578.
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