Extremism with Respect to Hijrah (Emigrating from) the Societies

 

by

 

 Abd Al-Rahman Ibn Mualla Luwayhiq

 

 

Taken from Religious Extremism in the Lives of Contemporary Muslims, pp. 559-574

 

 

The Meaning of Hijrah

 

The Arabic letters ha, jeem and ra form two sound roots.

 

Ibn Faaris said,

 

"One of them indicates 'breaking apart, estrangement,' while the other indicates 'fortifying something, binding. "' [1]

 

From the first comes hajr, meaning the opposite of connecting, keeping ties, and [with the same meaning] hijraan.

 

When a people haajir a land for another land it means that they leave the first for the second [2] [as in the English word, "emigrate"].

 

Ibn Hajar said,

 

"To make hijrah to something means to move to it from something else." [3]

 

While giving the Shareeah definition of hijrah.

 

Ibn Hajar stated,

 

"It is to leave what Allah has forbidden. In Islam, it has come in two forms. The first is leaving from a land of fear to a land of safety and security, as in the two hijrahs to Abbyssinia and the beginning of the hijrah from Makkah to Madinah. The second is from the land of kufr to the land of Islam. That was after the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was settled in Madinah and those Muslims who were able to emigrated there." [4]

 

A number of scholars give an even more specific definition than that. Ibn al-Arabi said,

 

"Hijrah is leaving the daar al-harb for the daar of Islam." [5]

 

Ibn Qudaamah gave a similar definition. [6]

 

The Ruling Concerning the Hijrah

 

At the beginning of Islam [7], the hijrah was obligatory upon anyone who embraced Islam. That was due to the small number of Muslims and their need to gather together, as well as the presence of being put to trials due to their new faith. Allah stressed the obligation of the hijrah to such an extent that He cut off the ties between those who emigrated and those who did not emigrate.

 

Allah says,

 

"As for those who believed but did not emigrate, you owe no duty of protection to them until they emigrate" (al-Anfaal 72).

 

Allah called those who avoided emigrating, "those who wronged their own souls."

 

Allah says,

 

"When angels take the souls of those who die wronging their souls, they say, 'In what (plight) were you?' They reply, 'Weak and oppressed were we in the earth.' They say, 'Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you emigrate away (from evil)?'" (al-Nisaa 97).

 

The evidences related to the ruling of the hijrah during the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) are not few in number. However, as for its ruling after the conquering of Makkah, there are some evidences narrated that could give one the impression that they are contradictory. I shall present two such [sets of] hadith here:

 

(a) Ibn Abbaas narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stated on the day of the Conquest of Makkah,

 

"There is no hijrah after the Conquest [of Makkah]. But there is jihad and intention. If you called to all go out [in jihad], then go out." [8]

 

(b) Muaawiyyah narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

 

"The hijrah will not be discontinued until repentance is discontinued. And repentance will not be discontinued until the sun rises from its West." [9]

 

Abdullah ibn al-Saad [10] narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

 

"Hijrah will not be discontinued as long as the enemy is being fought." [11]

 

Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

 

"The hijrah is of two characteristics. One of them is to avoid sins. The second is to migrate to Allah and His Messenger. Hijrah will not be discontinued as long as repentance is accepted. And repentance will continue to be accepted until the sun rises from the West.

 

When it rises [in that fashion], Allah seals every heart with what it contains and the deeds will be sufficient for the people.', [12]

 

The first hadith (a) and those with similar meaning indicate that hijrah has been discontinued and that there is no hijrah after the Conquest of Makkah. One scholar stated while commenting upon the words of that hadith, "Except for jihad," "This further comment must mean that its ruling is different from what precedes it. So its meaning is that the hijrah that refers to leaving one's land, that was required from each individual to go to Madinah, is discontinued. However, the leaving of a land due to jihad remains. Similarly, leaving the land due to a sound intention also remains.

 

The latter three hadith and others that have the same meaning indicate that the hijrah has not been discontinued. Since the apparent meaning of those two sets of hadith seem to contradict one another, the scholars have differed, expressing two opinions, concerning the ruling of hijrah after the Conquest of Makkah and how this apparent contradiction is to be reconciled.

 

The first opinion reconciles these seemingly conflicting texts.

 

This reconciliation, though, is done in a number of ways, They may be summarized in the following:

 

(1) The ruling exists when its legal cause is present and not so otherwise. Imam al-Shafi'ee stated,

 

"The sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) indicates that the obligation of hijrah for the one who is capable to perform it falls upon the one who will be threatened and put to afflictions due to his remaining in the land in which he embraced Islam. This is indicated by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) permitting some people to remain in Makkah after embracing Islam, like al-Abbaas ibn Abdul Muttalib and others, if they did not fear any fitnah (trial or affliction)." [13]

 

Such is also indicated by what Ataa ibn Abi Ribaah stated:

 

"I visited Aishah with Ubaid ibn Umair al-Laith [14] and we asked her about the hijrah. She said, 'There is no hijrah now. The believers would flee with their religion to Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fearing that they would face afflictions and torture. As for no\Y, Islam has become dominant. Today, one worships his Lord wherever he is. But jihad and intent [still exist]."'[15]

 

Ibn Hajar said,

 

"Aishah alluded to the reasoning for the Shareeah hijrah. Its reason was the fear offitnah (affliction). This ruling still exists when its legal cause [offitnah] exists. The result is that whenever someone has the means to worship Allah wherever he is, then it is not obligatory upon him to make the hijrah. Otherwise, it is obligatory." [16]

 

The meaning, then, of "There is no hijrah after the Conquest," is the Conquest of Makkah and any other similar conquests. This is because the legal reason behind the sanctioning of the hijrah is absent after the Muslims conquer a land.

 

Hence, hijrah from that land is not obligatory.

 

This conclusion is also indicated by a number of other hadith, including:

 

(a) Samurah ibn Jundub [17] narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

 

"Whoever associates with a polytheist and lives with him, then he is similar to him." [18]

 

(b) Jareer ibn Abdullah narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

 

"I am free of every Muslim who resides amid the polytheists. They should not see each other's fire." [19]

 

These hadith indicate that it is forbidden to remain in the midst of the polytheists. This, thus, indicates that it is obligatory to make hijrah from them. [20]

 

(2) Another way of reconciling these hadith is by saying that the words, "There is no hijrah..." refer to the obligatory hijrah. What remains, though, is the recommended hijrah.

 

Al-Khattaabi stated,

 

"At the beginning of Islam, the hijrah was recommended and not obligatory. [But then] Allah said, 'He who emigrates from his home in the cause of Allah finds in the earth many a refuge, wide and spacious' (al-Nisaa 100).

 

This was revealed when the hardship from the polytheists towards the Muslims became greater after the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) migrated to Madinah. They were then ordered to move to his presence to be with him, to support each other, to manifest his affair, to learn the matters of their religion from him and to understand the religion. At that time, the greatest fear was from the Quraish and the people of Makkah. When Makkah was conquered and they truly became obedient, that need was no longer present.

 

Hence, the obligation of hijrah was lifted and its ruling returned to its original state of being recommended. Hence, there are two hijrahs. The one that was discontinued was the obligatory one and the one remaining is the recommended one. This is the best way to reconcile these two [seemingly contradictory] hadith." [21]

 

(3) [Another way to reconcile them is by saying that] the meaning of the remaining hijrah is the hijrah from or fleeing from sins. In reconciling these hadith, al-Aini stated,

 

"I say: In another hadith is an indication that the meaning of the remaining hijrah is the fleeing from sins. This is what was recorded by Ahmad in his Musnad from Abdul Rahmaan ibn Auf [22] and Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

 

'The hijrah is of two characteristics. One of them is to avoid sins. The second is to migrate to Allah and His Messenger. Hijrah will not be discontinued as long as repentance is accepted. And repentance will continue to be accepted until the sun rises from the West. When it rises [in that fashion], Allah seals every heart with what it contains and the deeds will be sufficient for the people. '[23]" [24]

 

(4) Another way of reconciling the hadith is by saying] that the discontinued hijrah refers to that in which the person moves to where the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is.

 

As for moving from daar al-harb to the daar of Islam, that remains and has not been discontinued.

 

Ibn al-Arabi stated,

 

"Hijrah is to go from daar al-harb to daar of Islam. It was obligatory during the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). And it continues after him for whoever fears for himself. The portion that has been discontinued is that of moving to wherever the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) himself may be." [25]

 

Ibn Hajar stated,

 

"The hijrah was in particular reference to migrating to Madinah until Makkah was conquered. After that, its particular reference was discontinued. Afterwards, there remained the general moving from the land of kufr for whoever had the ability to do SO.' [26]

 

The second opinion [does not reconcile the differing hadith] but states that preference must be given to the texts that indicate that the hijrah has been discontinued.

 

Al-Muwafiq ibn Qudaamah stated,

 

"Some people say that the hijrah has been discontinued because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, 'There is no hijrah after the Conquest.", [27]

 

The Strongest View:

 

Allah knows best, but the stronger approach is to try to reconcile the hadith.

 

This is because:

 

(1) It is an accepted principle in Islamic legal theory that one does not resort to stating that one evidence is stronger than the other in case of conflict unless one is not able to reconcile between the evidences. Reconciling, as was shown earlier, is easy in this case.

 

(2) There is explicit evidence that shows that the hijrah will not be discontinued. Some of this evidence we have already mentioned, such as the hadith from Abdullah ibn Saadi in which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

 

"Hijrah will not be discontinued as long as the enemy is being fought." [28]

 

As for what the scholars have stated in their attempt to reconcile the hadith, it seems apparent to me that all of them are valid. However, it is not proper to restrict the reconciliation to just one of these views. Hence, the hijrah from sins remains and the hijrah from daar al-kufr for the one who fears for his religion also remains.

 

The Categories of People Who Live in Daar al-Harb

 

As for the people who live in daar al-harb, it is not obligatory upon all of them to emigrate. Instead, their ruling differs depending on their situation.

 

Those people fall into one of three categories:

 

The first category are those upon whom it is obligatory to make hijrah. These are the people who have the ability to make hijrah while they do not have the ability to openly practice their religion and they are not able to perform the obligations of their faith while living among the disbelievers. It is obligatory upon them to make the hijrah based on Allah's words, "When the angels take the souls of those who die wronging their souls, they say, 'In what (plight) were you?' They reply, 'Weak and oppressed were we in the earth.' They say, 'Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you emigrate away (from evil)?'" (al-Nisaa 97).

 

Ibn Qudaamah said,

 

"This is a strong threat proving obligation. This is because the fulfilling of the obligations of his religion is obligatory upon the one who has the ability. The hijrah is from the necessities and completeness of the obligatory acts. And if an obligatory act cannot be fulfilled save by [another act, then that other act] is also obligatory." [29]

 

The second category are those who do not perform the hijrah because they are incapable due to illness, coercion to stay, weakness in the case of women and children and so forth. Hijrah is not obligatory upon them, as Allah has said,

 

"Except those who are (really) weak and oppressed, men, women, and children who have no means in their power, nor (a guide-post) to direct their way. For these there is hope that Allah will forgive them: for Allah does blot out (sins) and forgive again and again" (al-Nisaa 98-99).

 

Ibn Qudaamah noted,

 

"It is not even described as recommended for they have no means to perform it." [30]

 

The third category are those for whom the hijrah is recommended but not obligatory. This is for the one who has the ability to make the hijrah yet he is also able to openly display and practice his religion in the daar of kufr. It is recommended for him to make the hijrah in order for him to take part in the jihad against the disbelievers, increase the number of Muslims, help the Muslims. He will also be able to steer clear of increasing the ranks of the disbelievers, mixing with them and seeing the evil among them. It is not obligatory upon him because he is able to fulfill the obligations of his religion without migrating. It is well-known that the uncle of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), al-Abbaas, remained in Makkah after he had become Muslim. [31]

 

From the above, the limits of extremism with regards to hijrah may be spelled out as follows:

 

(1) Hijrah based on declaring the people disbelievers, the societies jaahili or the land the land of kufr and so forth is hijrah based on a premise which is false. Anything built on something false will also be false.

 

(2) The hijrah, even if it is from the land of kufr or jaahili societies, does not have one absolute ruling to it. That is, it cannot be said to be obligatory in all cases. Instead, its ruling differs depending on the circumstances, as was explained earlier.

 

(3) The pivotal point concerning the permissibility of hijrah or its legal sanction is the existence of its legal cause. To allege that its legal clause exists is in itself not a justification for emigrating from the societies. One cannot say that a Muslim is not able to practice his religion in a particular place while in reality he is establishing his religion for himself in the proper manner.

 

These are the aspects of extremism that exist in contemporary times, to the point that the group of Shukri Mustafa opined that it is obligatory to make hijrah from the contemporary societies. In fact, the idea of hijrah was one of the main concepts that he called to.

 

Shukri Mustafa discussed that concept in his books al-Khiiaafah and al-Tuwasimaat. However, Maahir Bakri, the second in command of the group, dedicated a complete work to the topic of hijrah. In the following, I shall present a summary of his basic ideas in that book concerning hijrah.

 

Maahir Bakri affirms that hijrah is the means to reform society and that there is no path of reformation that is better than it.

 

Therefore, reformation from within the society is not a sound means of propagating the message. [32] Hence,

 

"the Muslims must race rapidly in order to make a complete separation from the jaahili society until the Muslims have a land in which there is no tyrant (taaghoot) having authority over them." [33]

 

He also says,

 

"We want to save ourselves and convey the truth to the worlds... We want to display the word of Allah on the earth.

 

None of that can be fulfilled while we are staying in the land of kufr.

 

Let the point from which we start from-in the name of Allah and in the path of Allah-be the hijrah and moving from the land of kufr to the spacious land of Allah." [34]

 

To prove that, he cites the hijrah of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to Madinah. Then he says,

 

"If the historical evidence is not a Shareeah evidence, we may take the historical reports into account in order for them to be a lesson for US." [35]

 

Maahir Bakri ties the issue of hijrah into the question of al-walaa and al-baraa (Islamic loyalty and disassociation). In fact, he has a large section in his book on that topic. He states,

 

"I would like to, before speaking in detail about the issue of hijrah, make a quick reference to an introductory topic before our discussion of the hijrah. This is because it has a very strong connection to our topic. It is considered a striking feature in the life of a Muslim and of the Muslim groups. It is the issue of al-walaa (loyalty) and the general steps in the relationship with the disbelievers, with respect to enmity and hatred forever until they believe in Allah alone." [36]

 

Then he presents the Quranic evidence regarding the obligation of disassociating oneself from the disbelievers. [37]

 

Then he says,

 

"Whoever is sincere in his Islam and not a hypocrite must migrate from the land in which those who make loyalty to the disbelievers instead of the believers reside, as such is a deed of the actions of hypocrisy." [38]

 

He also relates the issue of hijrah to what he calls the crisis of the Muslim in the jaahili society. The sum of his speech on that topic revolves around the weakness and oppressed state that the Muslim faces in the jaahili society. It also discusses the ramification of remaining in such a society, as the Muslims are not able to establish a mosque. They are also not able to remove the law of the taaghoot (tyrant ruler) and the ruling by other than what Allah revealed. Furthermore, they are required to be part of the taghoot army and give some of their wealth in the form of taxes to continue the support of the strength of the jaahiliyyah. Furthermore, they are forced to submit to the educational system and curriculum and what it contains of plots to take the people away from studying Islam. [39] After presenting what he calls the crisis of the Muslim in the jaahili society, he states,

 

"The only escape, the path for which there is no second path and for which there is no substitute to escape from the state of weakness and oppression which befalls the Muslim in the jaahili society... is hijrah to a special land of Allah." [40]

 

He explains what that land is by saying,

 

"It is the land in which it is possible to establish the religion of Allah, worship Allah in the way He ordered us to worship Him, apply His Shareeah and implement His penal laws. It is the land in which the signs of Allah are not disbelieved or ridiculed. The people of the religion are not fought against. It is the expansive land of Allah whether it be at the height of a mountain, in a cave or at the root of a tree." [41]

 

Maahir Bakri was of the opinion that the hijrah must be the first of the good deeds, preceding the jihad. He stated,

 

"Hijrah is the transitory stage and a necessity for jihad. Jihad cannot be made truly complete and is not permitted until after the hijrah. This is because the hijrah, in its essence, is a separation between the devoted servants of Allah and His enemies... Faith precedes hijrah and hijrah precedes jihad. So the matter becomes faith then hijrah then jihad. This is the sunnah and law of Allah that we find in the Quran and Shareeah texts." [42]

 

After discussing the topic of hijrah, he stated,

 

"The question that is posed to us now, after we have spoken about the theoretical foundation for the obligation of hijrah in general in any time and place, is: Is the hijrah from these societies today obligatory?" [43]

 

Then he stated,

 

"Before we continue in our discussion, we would like to respond to these two questions: Are the Muslims spread out throughout the jaahili society now able to establish the religion of Allah upon the earth? Are the Muslims able to counter the power of the jaahili society and establish the law of Allah on the earth?" [44]

 

After that, he stresses that these societies are indeed jaahili. He states,

 

"We do not differ about the fact that the societies today which falsely and lyingly claim to be related to Islam do not rule by what Allah revealed, even if they apply a part of Islam and take on some outward manifestations of Islam, but we also find that at the same time they take on the manifestations of kufr sufficiently that they can be ruled to be jaahili and their rulers are declared disbelievers.' [45]

 

He also wrote,

 

"All of the societies today which claim an attachment to Islam are jaahili societies without any exception." [46]

 

Then he posits an answer for the previous two questions, saying that the Muslims are not able to establish the religion of Allah as is obligatory upon them. Furthermore, they are also weak and oppressed and cannot oppose the power of jaahiliyyah. [47]

 

Then he affirms, therefore, the obligation of hijrah. He states,

 

"We can say, based on what we have just concluded and established an evidence for, that the hijrah is now obligatory upon everyone who has the ability to do it... It is now obligatory upon the Muslims to leave from the land of jaahiliyyah and flee with their religion to a land in which they are not oppressed and weak. It is where they can establish the law of Allah, worship Him and not ascribe any partner to Him." [48]

 

He wrote,

 

"We challenge whoever says opposite to what we have confirmed concerning the obligation of hijrah now. We call upon him to establish the proof. And we shall mention the words of Allah, 'When the angels take the souls of those who die wronging their souls, they say, "In what (plight) were you?" They reply, "Weak and oppressed were we in the earth." They say, "Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you emigrate away (from evil)?" (al-Nisaa 97).' And Allah also says, 'To those who leave their homes in the cause of Allah, after suffering oppression, We will assuredly give a goodly home in this world: but truly the reward of the Hereafter will be greater. If they only realized (this)' (al-Nahl 41)." [49]

 

As for where the hijrah should be to, Maahir Bakri states that it should be to the mountain peaks and places of rainwater and to the valleys and deserts and to the caves. [50] He proves that by quoting the evidences mentioned earlier concerning seclusion and isolation.

 

This is a summary presentation of what Maahir Bakri stated in his book al-Hijrah, including some of the evidences he presented. It should be noted that he also used all of the verses concerning hijrah as evidence.

 

Critique and Refutation:

 

A refutation of what he presented concerning this topic would be quite lengthy. However, I refer the reader to what has already been presented on this topic, while making the following additional points:

 

(1) Making a general ruling concerning the obligation of hijrah is not correct. This is because the circumstances and the places differ and, thus, the ruling of the hijrah will also differ. Obligating the hijrah upon everyone in these times neglects all of the considerations for which the ruling differs. Some of the evidence related to this point has already been presented.

 

(2) The path of reform does not begin with hijrah. Instead, the reformation must spring from within the society. For the sake of argument with them, I shall give the example of a disbelieving society. For a disbelieving society, the reform efforts must flow from within. For that reason, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) remained in Makkah for thirteen years without migrating. In fact, he worked to reform the society and called them to his message.

 

The migration to Abbyssinia by some of his Companions was only in search of a land in which they could be safe and not be put to trials. When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was not able to reform the society and the Quraish were not responding to his call, he then worked to find a land that would support him. That land would be the base for his call. It turned out to be Madinah.

 

Therefore, the path of reforming society is to call that society [to what is right and good]. That is with respect to a disbelieving society. That must, then, even more so be the case with respect to a Muslim society. This is because in a Muslim society, the deviations should be relative [and not complete]. It is possible to correct those deviations from within without any need to emigrate from that society.

 

(3) The issue of al-walaa and al-baraa (loyalty and disassociation) is a central issue to Islamic beliefs. However, hijrah from a sinful or disbelieving society is not always a necessary ramification of al-walaa and al-baraa. In fact, a person could fulfill his loyalty to the believers and his disassociation from the disbelievers while actually living in the midst of the disbelievers.

 

(4) What they call the crisis of the Muslim in a jaahili society is correct in general. The history of the call of the messengers shows that they and their followers suffered from oppression and trials with respect to their faith. However, Shukri Mustafa's group included in their discussion of the crisis some issues that do not lead to the permission of hijrah, such as giving up some of one's wealth in the form of taxes. This, in reality, is not a justification for hijrah. This is because the one who pays that wealth does so as a type of necessity, warding off a greater evil that would occur if he does not pay it. It is not obligatory upon him to migrate to escape paying that tax.

 

(5) The statement that there is no jihad except after hijrah is false. Although the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not make jihad until after the hijrah, that was because he was not able to do so before. Therefore, it was not sanctioned except after he was in Madinah.

 

(6) This is the most important point in this refutation. It is related to the question of whether the contemporary societies are such that it is obligatory to migrate from them. I shall offer more detail on this point, as follows:

 

(a) The societies are not, as they claim, jaahili. And they are not daar of kufr inhabited by disbelievers. That is a false statement.

 

This statement has been critiqued earlier in detail and there is no need to repeat that discussion.

 

(b) For the sake of argument [if we accept the above argument], we still do not accept the fact that the Muslims who live in the jaahili society are not able to establish the religion of Allah on the earth. Nothing prevents them from that. Although the government is not Islamic, that has to do with the actions of the ruler and not with the actions of the individuals; and they are the topic of discussion here. The rulers, by their not ruling in accord with what Allah revealed, are sinful, deviating from the law of Allah with various degrees of deviation.

 

(c) The Muslims being weak and not able to repel the strength of the jaahili powers does not make the hijrah obligatory upon them.

 

These tests and trials are simply part of "the way" or sunnah of Allah along the path of propagating the faith in this worldly existence.

 

Allah says,

 

"Did you think that you would enter Paradise without Allah showing those of you who fought hard (in His Cause) and remained steadfast?" (ali-Imraan 142).

 

Allah also says,

 

"Or do you think that you shall enter the Garden (of Bliss) without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you? They encountered suffering and adversity, and were so shaken in spirit that even the Messenger and those of faith who were with him cried, 'When (will come) the help of Allah.' Verily, the help of Allah is (always) near" (al-Baqarah 214).

 

The state of oppression and weakness that permits the hijrah is where a Muslim is in a land wherein he cannot establish the religion of Allah. Otherwise, there have been many virtuous and just leaders of this religion who were oppressed. They did not leave their lands nor did they migrate.

 

Instead, they remained to advise the nation and call unto goodness until Allah took their souls. Saeed ibn Jubair and Ahmad ibn Hanbal are two such figures of two different eras who were patient in the face of the trials they faced.

 

In the end of this critique of their views, I believe that the Shareeah answers to three questions will destroy all of the foundations of their thought concerning the hijrah and how they represent the societies of today. These questions are as follows:

 

(a) Is the society jaahili?

(b) Is the land a land of kufr?

(c) Is the society a society of disbelievers?

 

 

 

1) Mujam Maqaayees al-Lughah, topic.f"V'.

2) Ibid.

3) Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Baari, vol. 1, p. 16.

4) Ibid.

5) Quoted from ibn Hajar, Fath al-Baari, vol. 6, p. 39.

6) Al-Mughni, vol. 10, p. 513. Also see the definition by ibn al-Atheer, Jaami al-Usool, vol. 2, p. 565.

7) [Meaning, in the early years after the Prophet's own emigration to Madinah.]Z]

8) Recorded by al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood, al-Tirmidhi, al-Nasaa' ee and al-Daarimi.

9) Recorded by Abu Dawood, Al-Daarimi and Ahmad. [According to al-Albaani, it is sahih. Cf., al-Albaani, Saheeh al-Jaami al-Sagheer, vol. 2, p.1244.-JZ]

10) He was Abdullah al-Saadi, and al-Saadi's name was Waqdaan while some say it was Qudaamah. It is also said that he was called al-Saadi because he was breastfed among the Tribe of Saadi. He was part of a delegation from his people to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). He lived in Madinah and then settled in "Jordan." He died in 57 A.H. Cf., al-Isaabah, vol. 6, p. 104.

11) Recorded by Ahmad and its chain is hasan. Cf., Sharh al-Sunnah, with the footnotes by al-Arnaaoot and al-Shaweesh as they said (vol. 10, p. 372), "Its chain is hasan."

12) Recorded by Ahmad. [According to Ahmad Shaakir, the chain of this hadith is sahih. See Ahmad Shaakir, footnotes to al-Musnad, vol. 2, p. 312JZ] 3 AI-Teebi, quoted from ibn Hajar, Fath al-Baari, vol. 6, p. 39.

13) Al-Shaafi'ee, al-Umm, vol. 4, p. 161.

14) He was Ubaid ibn Umair ibn Qataadah al-Laithi, the executor of the prescribed punishments for the people of Makkah. He was trustworthy. He was one of the "major Followers". He died in 68 A.H. Cf., Tahdheeb al-Tahdheeb, vol. 7, p. 71.

15) Recorded by al-Bukhari.

16) Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Baari, vol. 7, p. 229.

17) He was Samurah ibn Jundub ibn Hilaal, a Companion. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) gave him the nickname Abu Sulaimaan. He was raised in Madinah and then settled in Basrah. He died in Kufah, while some say it was Basrah. He died in 59 or 60 A.H. Cf., Siyar Alaam al-Nubalaa, vol. 3, p. 183; al-Isaabah, vol. 4, p. 257; al-Alaam, vol. 3, p.139.

18) Recorded by Abu Dawood. [According to al-Albaani, this hadith is hasan. See al-Albaani, Saheeh al-Jaami al-Sagheer, vol. 2, p. 1064.-JZ]

19) Discussed earlier. It is hasan.

20) Cf., al-Baghawi, Sharh al-Sunnah, vol. 10, p. 372; al-Muwafaq ibn Qudaamah, al-Mughni, vol. 10, p. 514.

21) Al-Khattaabi, Mualim al-Sunan, vol. 3, p. 352. Cf., al-Baghawi, Sharh al.Sunnah, vol. 10, pp. 372-373.

22) He was Abu Muhammad Abdul Rahmaan ibn Auf ibn Abd Auf, one of the prominent Companions. He was one of the ten who was given the glad tidings of Paradise. He was also one of the six in the consultation committee [after the death of Umar]. He was wealthy, generous and brave. He participated at Badr, Uhud and all of the battles. He died in Madinah in 32 A.H. Cf., al-Isaabah, vol. 6, p. 311; al-Alaam, vol. 3, p. 321.

23) Recorded by Ahmad. Al-Arnaaoot and al-Shaaweesh said that the chain for this report is hasan. Cf., Sharh al-Sunnah, vol. 10, p. 372.

24) Al-Aini, Umdah al-Qaari, vol. 1, p. 30.

25) Quoted from ibn Hajar, Fath al-Baari, vol. 6, p. 39.

26) Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Baari, vol. 1, p. 16.

27) Al-Mughni, vol. 10, p. 513.

28) Recorded by Ahmad and its chain is hasan. Cf., Sharh al-Sunnah, with the footnotes by al-Arnaaoot and al-Shaweesh as they said (vol. 10, p. 372), "Its chain is hasan."

29) Al-Mughni, vol. 10, p. 514.

30) Al-Mughni, vol. 10, p. 514.

31) For the different categories of people with respect to the hijrah, see ibn Qudaamah, al-Mughni, vol. 10, pp. 514-515.

32) Cf., Kitaab al-Hijrah. p. 3.

33) Ibid., p. 6.

34) Ibid., p. 7.

35) Ibid., p. 16.

36) Ibid., p. 18.

37) Ibid., pp. 19-20.

38) Ibid., p. 20.

39) All of these points can be found in Maahir Bakri's words and they are some of the views that were critiqued in this work. Cf., Kitaab al-Hijrah, pp.22-28.

40) Ibid., p. 31.

41) Ibid., p. 29.

42) Ibid., p. 33.

43) Ibid., p. 62.

44) Ibid., p. 62.

45) Ibid., p. 62.

46) Ibid., p. 62.

47) See Kitaab al-Hijrah, pp. 62-64.

48) Ibid., p. 63.

49) Ibid., pp. 63-64.

50) Ibid., pp. 92-93.

 

 

 

 

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