Evidence That Islam Teaches That There Was Textual Corruption of the Christian and Jewish Scriptures


Bassam Zawadi 


One of the most common arguments that Christian missionaries pose to the Muslims is that Islamic teachings allegedly affirm the authenticity and divine nature of the Bible that Christians follow today (I'm not sure if they are referring to the Protestant or Catholic version or both. I guess it depends on with which Christian you are debating).

There seems to be a misconception among Christians. They think that Islam teaches that there once was an original Bible, and then the Bible got corrupted. This is not what Islam teaches. 

Islam does not teach that there was an original book of Philippians or Corinthians, which later got corrupted. We don't even believe that these books are divine in the first place.

Islam teaches that parts of the original revelations sent down to Moses (Torah) and Jesus (Gospel) (peace be upon them both) still exist in the Bible today. Islam teaches that people came and wrote things on their own and claimed that it was from God. They then mixed their own writings with the original revelations (Torah and Gospel) and removed and added to them. 

It is important to note that the Qur’an and ahadith could use the words “Torah” and “Injeel” differently depending on context.

Ibn Kathir states in his commentary of Surah 5:110:

والتوراة} وهي المنزلة على موسى بن عمران الكليم، وقد يرد لفظ التوراة في الحديث ويراد به ما هو أعم من ذلك.

Torah: It refers to what was revealed to Musa bin Imran. Surely, the word Torah is found in hadith and is used more broadly there.

Ibn Taymiyyah:

وقوله: إن هذا في التوراة، لا يريد به التوراة المعنية التي هي كتاب موسى فقط، فإن لفظ التوراة والإنجيل والزبور والقرآن يراد به الكتب المعنية تارة، ويراد به الجنس تارة،

فقوله: أخبرني بصفة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: إما أن يريد التوراة المعينة، وليست المبدلة التي بأيدي اليهود لعنهم الله، أو جنس الكتب المتقدمة

His saying, "Indeed, this is in the Torah," does not intend the specific Torah, which is the book of Moses alone. The terms Torah, Gospel, Psalms, and Quran are sometimes meant to refer to specific books and sometimes to the general category…

So, when he said, "Inform me about the description of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him," he may intend the specific Torah, not the altered one in the hands of the cursed Jews, or he may mean the general category of earlier scriptures…

The Western academic Camilla Adang states the same:

Although in the Qur’an the name Torah is mostly used in its proper sense, i.e. the books of Moses or Pentateuch, it is often applied in post-Qur’anic Islamic literature to the entire Hebrew Bible, and even to Jewish extra-canonical literature. The rabbinical literature, too, is sometimes called Torah, which is not surprising considering the fact that Judaism considers these sources to be the “oral Torah.” (Camilla Adang, “Torah”, Encylopedia of the Qur’an, Volume 5, page 300)

The Arabic word most commonly used in the Qur'an and Hadith to state that the Christians and Jews distorted their books is Tahreef.  

The original meaning of the word Tahreef is "to lean from the pen in a certain direction" or 'to twist words to correspond to one's own desire." (Ar-Raghib Al-Isfahani, Al-Mufradat Fi Gharib Al-Qur'an, ed., by M. Ahmad Khalaf Allah, (Cairo, al-Anjilo al-Misriyya, 1965), vol. 1, pp.122f, cited here))

Ash Shahrastani remarked that Tahreef means "changing the written word to an alternative to give it a corrupted meaning." (Ash-Shahrastani, op. cit., vol. 3, p. 11; Mujahid, op. cit., pp. 140; see also Ibn Taymiyyah, Iqtida' As-Sirat al-Mustaqim Mukhalafat Ashab Aj-Jahim, ed. by Muhammad 'Ali as-Sabuni (Saudi Arabia, Matabi al-Majd, 1390 A.H.), p. 8 and 'Abd as-Salam Harun, op. cit., pp. 262 and 360., cited here))

Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah elaborates on the different usages of the word as well as its definition:

3.6.1 AT-TAHREEF In the Language - to change or alter. Technically here - to change the texts in wording or meaning. This is of 3 kinds. Altering the words so the meaning changes: e.g. What some innovators do to the Saying of Allaah in (4):164 - changing the Dammah on the last letter of "Allaah" with a Fathah, in order to change the meaning to "Moosaa spoke to Allaah..." Altering the words with no change of meaning: e.g. changing the Dammah on the last letter of "al Hamd" in (1):2, to a Fathah. This usually occurs out of ignorance. Altering the Meaning: taking the meaning of the words away from their most apparent meaning without any proof. e.g. Saying Allaah's Two Hands means "His Power" or "His Blessing". (Shaikh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, Creed of Hamawiyyah - Chapter 3: The Way of Ahl us-Sunnah Concerning Allaah's Attributes, Source) 

Note how Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah in the first two kinds of Tahreef shows that the Tahreef could mean changing the letters of the statement (textual corruption), and in the third kind, it is misinterpreting the statement's meaning.

Al Baji says in his commentary on Muwatta' Maalik. 

zيريد أنهم يحرفون الكلم عن مواضعه كما وصفهم الله سبحانه فيقولون مكان " السلام عليكم " السام

They (the Jews) wanted to distort (yuharrifun) the words out of their places just as Allah the Most High described them, so instead of saying Assalamu Alaykum' (peace be upon you), they say Assaam' (poison) (Abû al-Walîd Sulaymân ibn Khalaf al-Bâjî, Al Muntaqaa Sharh Muwata' Maalik, Kitab: Al Jaami', Bab: Ma Jaa'a fi Al Salaam A'ala Al Yahoodi wal Nasraani, Commentary on Hadith no. 1514, Source)  

Here we see that Imam Baji is speaking about how the Jews used to say 'Assaamu Alaykum' (may poison be upon you) to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and then states that their changing of the letters is a kind of tahreef or distortion. So it's not simply a matter of misinterpreting a statement but actually changing the letters around by either deletion or addition.

As we can see, the distortion could be caused by interpretation or textual corruption.

What I will be doing in this article is presenting evidence from the Qur'an, authentic statements of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), statements of the companions of the Prophet peace be upon him, the early Muslims and prominent Muslim scholars to show that Islam does teach that the Christians and the Jews textually corrupted the revelations of God.

I urge the readers to remember that this is not about whether the Islamic claim of textual corruption is true or not but whether Islam makes this claim or not.

The outline of my article will be as follows:

 - Evidence from the Qur'an   

    Surah 2:79

   - Surah 4:157

- Evidence from the Statements of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)

    - The Prophet's Accusation of the Jews and Christians Distorting Their Books

    - Evidence From the Prophet's Conversation with The Jews

    - The Description of the Prophet in The Torah and Gospel

- Evidence from the statements of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)

     - Umar ibn Al Khattab (d. 22 A.H.)

    - Abdullah ibn Mas’ud (d. 32 A.H.)

    - Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman (d. 36 A.H.)

    - Abdullah ibn Salam (d. 43 A.H.)

    - Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn al-’Aass (d. 63 A.H.)

    - Ibn Abbas (d. 68 A.H.)

- Evidence From the Statements of The Early Muslims

    - Evidence from the statements of Ka'b al-Ahbar (d. 14 A.H.)

    - Evidence from the statement of Abul-`Aaliyah (d. 90 A.H.)

   - Muqatil bin Sulaiman (d. 150 A.H.)  

   - Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi (d. 169 A.H.)

   - Evidence from the conversation of Abu Jafar al-Ma'mun ibn Harun (d. 218 A.H.)  

    - Abu 'Uthman 'Amr b. Bahr al-Fuqaymi al-Basri al-Jahiz (d. 255 A.H.)

    - Evidence from the Statement of Sahl (d. ? A.H.)

- Evidence From The Statements of The Muslim Scholars

    - Abu Uthman al-Jahiz (d. 255 A.H.)

    - Al-Qadi Ismail b. Ishaq (d. 282 A.H.)

    - Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310 A.H.)

    - Az-Zajjaj (d. 311 A.H.)  

    - Abu Ja’far at-Tahawi (d. 321 A.H.)  

    - Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (d. 333 A.H.)

    - Al-Mutahhar b. Tahir Al-Maqdisi (d. 355 A.H.)

    - Abu Bakr al-Jassas (d. 370 A.H.)

    - Al-Hasan ibn Ayyub (d. 378 A.H.)

    - Abul Hassan al-‘Amiri (d. 381 A.H.)

    - Abdul Jabbar Al-Hamadani (d. 415 A.H.)

    - Abu Raihan Muhammad Al-Biruni (d. 440 A.H.)

    - Ibn Hazm (d. 456 A.H.)

    - Al-Juwayni (d. 478 A.H.)

    - Abu Muhammad al-Baghawi (d. 516 A.H.)

    - Az-Zamakhshari (d. 538 A.H.)   

    - Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (d.  606 A.H.)

    - Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 A.H.)

    - al-Qurtubi (d. 671 A.H.) 

    - Sulaiman ibn Abdul-Qawi al-Tufi (d. 716 A.H.)

    - Ibn Kathir (d. 774 A.H.)

    - Jalalayn (al-Mahilli d. 864 A.H.; as-Suyuti 911 A.H.)

Evidence from the Qur'an 

The greatest source of religious authority in Islam is the glorious Qur'an, the verbatim Word of God. In this section, I will only use two verses as evidence. The reason for this is that it is clear from the verses themselves, without the need for interpretation, that the Qur'an endorses textual corruption of the Christian and Jewish scriptures. However, the other verses would need us to appeal to commentaries and see how the early Muslims understood those verses (will be discussed later in the article). As for now, we will only look at the apparent meaning of the verses.  

Surah 2:79

Allah says in the glorious Qur'an:

Surah 2:79

Therefore woe be unto those who write the Book with their hands and then say, "This is from Allah," that they may purchase a small gain therewith. Woe unto them for that their hands have written, and woe unto them for that they earn thereby. 

Here, we see that Allah is warning those (Jews) who wrote the scripture from their own selves and then claimed that it was from God. A clear charge of textual corruption. The verse is clear in stating that whatever the Jews wrote, they claimed it was from God. 

Some Christians say that the Qur'an is only talking about a specific group of people and that elsewhere in the Qur'an, it speaks about the People of the Book positively:

Surah 3:113-114: 

"Not all of them are alike. Some of the People of the Book are an upright people. They recite the signs (or verses) of God in the night season and they bow down worshipping. They believe in God and the last day. They command what is just, and forbid what is wrong and they hasten in good works, and they are of the righteous. 

Surah 3:199 

"And there are, certainly, among the People of the Book, those who believe in God, and that which has been revealed to you, in that which has been revealed to them, bowing in humility to God. They will not sell the signs of God for miserable gain. For them is a reward with their Lord, and God is swift in account." 

The People of the Book being spoken about in Surah 3:113-114 refers to those who believed in the prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him) and recited the Qur'an at night. (See Tafsir ibn Kathir)

The People of the Book being spoken about in Surah 3:199 refer to those who believed in the prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him) and were not afraid to speak up about his descriptions in their scriptures for some material gain. (See Tafsir ibn Kathir and Tafsir Jalalayn)

In no way do these verses suggest that the People of the Book who believed in the prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him) had the complete correct text of the Torah with them. All it shows is that they understood the text correctly or were aware of what the true Torah contained by oral traditions (e.g., their rightly guided parents). The Qur'an does not state that there was a Torah corrupted textually and a Torah not. Nor does it say that the righteous people of the People of the Book ever participated in the corruption of the Torah. It does not require that ALL of the People of the Book come to corrupt it. A few people with great authority and power (we will see this later under Ibn Abbass's section) can achieve this task. 

We can summarize the points as follows:

- The Qur'an states that the Jews wrote 'The Book' with their own hands.

- 'The Book' referred to in the verse is 'The Book' being mentioned throughout several verses in the Qur'an in the possession of the Jews.

- The Qur'an states that the Jews, after writing 'The Book' from their selves, then claimed it was from God.

Surah 4:157

Allah says in the glorious Qur'an:

Surah 4:157  

And their saying: Surely we have killed the Messiah, Isa son of Marium, the apostle of Allah; and they did not kill him nor did they crucify him, but it appeared to them so (like Isa) and most surely those who differ therein are only in a doubt about it; they have no knowledge respecting it, but only follow a conjecture, and they killed him not for sure. 

The verse makes it clear that the crucifixion of Jesus is conjecture or corruption. The crucifixion of Jesus is taught in the Gospels that we have today. Thus, the Qur'an is clearly, in an indirect way, saying that this is corrupted. 

It is amusing how some Christians try to argue back that the author of the Qur'an probably did not know that the crucifixion was mentioned in the Gospel, and if he had, then he probably would not have denied it. 

Are Christians seriously asking us to believe that none of the Muslims during the Prophet's time knew that the gospels taught that Jesus was crucified yet at the same time thought that Islam told them to believe that the gospels in possession of the Christians were pure and undistorted? Couldn't the Prophet have easily been exposed by Christian converts to Islam such as Salmaan al Faarisi or Maryam, the Coptic slave girl who would have known that the gospels taught the crucifixion while at the same time believed that Islam taught them that the gospels were undistorted? How about being exposed by Christians and Jews at the time who knew what the gospels contained and should have known that Islam taught their scriptures are uncorrupted (assuming Islam teaches this) and then expose the Prophet? Why don't we have any of these accusations from the Prophet's enemies at that time? This is something truly absurd to believe in and requires evidence by Christian missionaries who would issue such a response. This point is further elaborated here.

Evidence from the Statements of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)

The Qur'an gives authority to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) to teach (3:164) and make clear (16:44) the Qur'an to us. To know more about the importance of the Sunnah in Islam, please refer to my section here.

We will look at some authentic Prophetic hadith that will attempt to shed some light on the topic.

 The Prophet's Accusation of the Jews and Christians Distorting Their Books

Al-Hakim related in Al-Mustadrak the following Hadith:

Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Abdullah As-Saffar told us: Ahmad Ibn Mahdi Ibn Rustum Al-Asfahani told us: Mu'azh Ibn Hisham Ad-Distwani told us: my father told me: Al-Qasim Ibn 'Awf Ash-Shaybani told me: Mu'azh Ibn Jabal - radiya Allahu 'anhu - told us that he went to Sham and saw the Christians prostrate to their Bishops and priests and saw the Jews prostrate to their Rabbis and scholars. He said, "Why do you do this?" they answered, "This is the greeting of Prophets (peace be upon him)." I said, "We better do this to our Prophet." Allah's Prophet - salla Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam - said, "They lied about their Prophets just as they distorted their Book. If I were to command anyone to prostrate to anyone, I would command a woman to prostrate to her husband for his great right upon her. No woman will taste the sweetness of Faith till she does her husband's rights even if he asks herself while she is on a Qutub"(Al-Hakim commented, "This hadith is authentic according to standards of Al-Bukhari and Muslim, but they did not relate it"At-Tabarani also related this hadith in "Al-Mu'jam Al-Kabir" vol. 8, p.31 but it includes An-Nahhas Ibn Fahm who is a weak narrator. Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal related it with a sound chain of transmission in his Musnad vol. 4, p. 381 (online source) with the following chain: 'Abdullah told us: my father (Ibn Hanbal) told me: Mu'azh Ibn Hisham told us: my father told me: Al-Qasim Ibn 'Awf - a man from Al-Kufa, one of Bani Murra Ibn Hammam - told me: Mu'azh Ibn Jabal - radiya Allahu 'anhu - told us that .. and mentioned the hadith. Ibn Hajar Al Haytami has authenticated this hadith in his Majma' Al Zawaaid, Volume 4, page 312. He said of the narrators in the chain, 'their men are men of authenticity' )  

Notice that the Prophet (peace be upon him) is saying that the Christians and Jews distorted their books just as they lied about their Prophets. The context of the situation is that the Christians and Jews said that bowing down to their priests and rabbis was the greeting of the Prophets. This is a forgery and a lie. Thus, if they were to corrupt their books similarly, they would have made up lies in the Torah and Gospel by introducing false statements into them. 

The Prophet (peace be upon him) elaborates more:

إن بني إسرائيل كتبوا كتابا فاتبعوه , و تركوا التوراة

The Bani Israel wrote a book; they followed it and left the Torah.(This hadith was reported in Tabarani's Al Mu'jam Al Awsat and was authenticated by Sheikh Nasr Al Deen Al Albani in his Silsila Al-Ahaadeeth Al-Saheeha, hadith no. 2832.) 

The Prophet (peace be upon him) also said:

 إن بني إسرائيل لما طال الأمد و قست قلوبهم اخترعوا كتابا من عند أنفسهم , استهوته قلوبهم و استحلته ألسنتهم

The Bani Israel, as a long time passed and their hearts became hardened, they invented a book by themselves. It took over their hearts and their tongues. (This hadith was reported in Al-Bayhaqi's Shu'b Al-Eemaan, Volume 2, no. 439. Sheikh Nasr Al-Deen Al-Albani has authenticated this hadith in his Silsila Al-Ahaadeeth Al-Saheeha, hadith no. 2694.)   

So here we see that the Prophet (peace be upon him) says that the Israelites wrote their book and started following it. Possible objections and responses to them are:

Objection: The Prophet only referred to a specific group of the Israelites.

Response: The hadiths do not imply this; the Prophet (peace be upon him) made a general statement. If you want to limit the scope of the meaning of the statement, then please provide objective evidence. 

Objection: The Prophet only said that the Jews wrote a book and followed it; he doesn't say that the Torah was corrupted.

Response: But what does the hadith imply? This implies that the Jews stopped following the true revelation sent down to Moses, the Torah. Instead, they followed their books. Don't the Jews of today follow the Pentateuch? Wouldn't that, therefore, mean that according to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), most of the Pentateuch is what was written by the Jews themselves?

Objection: It is possible that Prophet Muhammad intended the term 'Torah' to mean the Pentateuch and the book that the Jews wrote was the Talmud. Thus, Prophet Muhammad might have intended to say that the Jews stopped following the Pentateuch and started following the Talmud only.

Response: That argument would be possible if it were true. The Jews refer to the Talmud to better understand the Pentateuch. They haven't abandoned their Pentateuch. They still follow it. If the Prophet said that the Jews wrote a book and followed it along with the Torah, then you might be able to possibly argue that it is referring to the Talmud and Pentateuch in this hadith. However, that is not the case.    

Evidence From The Prophet's Conversation With The Jews

Let us read the following narration:

حدثنا يحيى بن موسى البلخي ثنا أبو أسامة قال مجالد أخبرنا عن عامر عن جابر بن عبد الله قال: جاءت اليهود برجل وامرأة منهم زنيا فقال ائتوني بأعلم رجلين منكم فأتوه بابني صوريا فنشدهما كيف تجدان أمر هذين في التوراة قالا نجد في التوراة إذا شهد أربعة أنهم رأوا ذكره في فرجها مثل الميل في المكحلة رجما قال فما يمنعكما أن ترجموهما قالا ذهب سلطاننا فكرهنا القتل فدعا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بالشهود فجاؤوا بأربعة فشهدوا أنهم رأوا ذكره في فرجها مثل الميل في المكحلة فأمر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم برجمهما

The Jews brought [to the Prophet peace be upon him] a man and a woman among them who committed adultery. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Bring the two most knowledgeable men from among you."  The Jews brought the two sons of Suriyya, and the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked them, "What punishment do you find in the Torah regarding these two?" They said, "In the Torah, we find that if four men testify that they saw his male organ in her womb, similar to when the eyeliner is inserted inside the eyeliner container; in this case they are stoned."  The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "What made you stop stoning?" They said, "Our kingship (meaning Jewish) was taken from us, and we hated killing." The Messenger of Allah asked for four witnesses, and they brought four men who testified that they saw his penis in her womb like the eyeliner is inserted in the eyeliner container. The Messenger of Allah ordered that the two [adulterers] be stoned. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Hadith no. 3862, Source. Sheikh Albani declared this hadith authentic in Sunan Abu Dawud, hadith no. 4452) 

Indeed, we do find in the Old Testament today that adulterers are to be killed (Leviticus 20:10), but nowhere do we find anything about four witnesses (interestingly, Islam teaches this) or any eyeliner.

This is indirect proof that this section of the Torah has been distorted. 

The Description of the Prophet In The Torah and Gospel

Narrated by Al-Fultaan ibn A'asim:

أتشهد أني رسول الله ؟ ، قال : لا ، قال : أتقرأ التوراة ؟ ، قال : نعم ، قال : والإنجيل ؟ ، قال : نعم ، قال : والقرآن ؟ ، قال : والذي نفسي بيده لو أشاء لقرأته ، قال : ثم نشده قال : [ ما ] تجدني في التوراة والإنجيل ؟ . قال : نجد مثلك ومثل أمتك ومخرجك ، وكنا نرجو أن تكون فينا ، فلما خرجت تخوفنا أن تكون أنت ، فنظرنا فإذا ليس أنت هو ، قال : ولم ذاك ؟ ، قالإن معه من أمته سبعين ألفا ليس عليهم حساب ولا عقاب ، وإنما معك نفر يسير ؟ قال : والذي نفسي بيده لأنا هو ، وإنها لأمتي ، وإنهم لأكثر من سبعين ألفا ، وسبعين ألفا ، وسبعين ألفا

Do you bear witness to the fact that I am the Messenger of Allah? He said: No. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Do you read the Torah? He replied: Yes. Then the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked: and the Gospel? The man replied: Yes. The Prophet (peace be upon him) then asked: The Qur'an? The man replied: No. The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied: By He Whose Hand my soul lies if I will, I would read it. Then the Prophet (peace be upon him) pulled the man and asked: Don't you find me in the Torah and Gospel? The man replied: We found someone similar to you and your Ummah (community) from where you were brought up, and we were hoping you would be from among us. When you rose (as a Prophet) we feared it would be you. However, we looked and saw that it wasn't you. The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied, asking: Why is that? The man said: From him, there will be 70,000 of his followers from his community who will have no judgment passed on them nor punishment, but you have a simple number of men following you. The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied: By He Whose Hand my soul lies it is me and it is referring to my Ummah (community). And they are more than 70 thousand, 70 thousand, 70 thousand. (This hadith has been declared authentic by Sheikh Al-Albani in Saheeh Al-Muwaarid, page or hadith no. 1765) 

Note how the man informed the Prophet (peace be upon him) that one of the signs of the Prophet to come according to the Torah or Gospel is that the Prophet will have 70,000 followers who will enter paradise with no judgment passed on them. Where do we see this in today's Torah or Gospel? Nowhere. Thus indicating that it has been removed from the text, which in turn implies textual corruption.  

Evidence from the Statements of the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)  

Muslims believe that no one understood Allah and His Messenger better than the companions of the Prophet peace be upon him. The companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) were promised paradise in the Qur'an:

Surah 9:100

And (as for) the foremost, the first of the Muhajirs and the Ansars, and those who followed them in goodness, Allah is well pleased with them and they are well pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, to abide in them forever; that is the mighty achievement. 

The Muhajirs refer to the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) who migrated to Madina. The Ansar refers to those Muslims in Medina who welcomed the Muhajirs to come to their city. 

The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) also said:

"Indeed the people of the Book before you split into seventy-two sects. And this nation will split into seventy-three sects, seventy-two are in the Fire and one in Paradise". In another narration, "All are in the Fire except one," the question was asked: Who is that one? He replied, "That which I and my Companions are upon" (Related by at-Tirmidhi (5/62) and al-Haakim (1/128). It has been authenticated by al-Haafidh al-Iraaqee in Takhreejul-Ihyaa (3/199) and al-Albaanee in as-Saheehah (no.204), cited here)   

So here we see that Islam teaches that the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) are the saved sect and were promised paradise. This is clearly because they understood and practiced Islam better than anyone else. They are a great authority to refer to. This does not mean the companions were individually infallible; however, their consensus is.

Here, we will see some of the perspectives of the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) towards the Christian and Jewish scriptures. 

Umar ibn Al-Khattab (d. 22 A.H.)

The following narration tells us about a conversation that Umar ibn Al-Khattab once had with a Jew: 

ان مسلما ويهوديا اختصما إلى عمر رضى الله عنه فرأى الحق لليهودي فقضى له عمر به فقال له اليهودي والله لقد قضيت بالحق فضربه عمر بالدرة قال وما يدريك فقال اليهودي والله إنا نجد في التوراة ليس قاضي يقضي بالحق إلا كان عن يمينه ملك وعن شماله ملك يسددانه ويوفقانه للحق ما دام مع الحق عرجا وتركاه 

Sa'eed ibn Al-Museeb narrated that a Muslim and a Jew had a dispute, so they went to Umar bin Al-Khattab to judge the dispute between them. Umar bin Al-khattab ruled in favor for the Jew, which upon the Jew said: "I swear by Allah, you have judged with the Truth". Umar bin Al-Khattab hit the man with a stick that had a small ball on the top of it when he heard him saying that. Then Umar bin Al-Khattab asked the Jew, "How do you know that I judged with the truth?" The Jew replied, "We find in the Torah that whoever judges according to the truth, two angels from his right and left sides assist him to find the truth. Yet, if he went astray from the truth, they will leave him. (Al-Munzhiri declared this narration to be authentic in Al-Targheeb Wal-Tarheeb, Volume 3, p. 188) 

The Jew spoke about the two angels on the sides of the human being. Where is this to be found in today's Torah? It is not. This means it was removed, thus indicating textual corruption.   

Abdullah ibn Mas’ud (d. 32 A.H.)

Abdullah ibn Mas'ud is reported to have said:

عن عبد الله بن مسعود رضي الله عنه قال يؤتى الرجل في قبره فيؤتى رجلاه فتقول ليس لكم على ما قبلي سبيل كان يقرأ سورة الملك ثم يؤتى من قبل صدره أو قال بطنه فيقول ليس لكم على ما قبلي سبيل كان يقرأ سورة الملك ثم يؤتي من قبل رأسه فيقول ليس لكم على ما قبلي سبيل كان يقرأ في سورة الملك فهي المانعة تمنع عذاب القبر وهي في التوراة سورة الملك من قرأها في ليلة فقد أكثر وأطيب الراوي

 "While a person is in his grave, The first place to start with punishment is his feet, yet his feet prevent this punishment from happening by saying: "You cannot punish me in any way as this man always recited Sura Al-Mulk". Thus, it (the punishment) approaches him from his chest (stomach) side, yet his chest prevents the punishments from happening by saying: "You cannot harm or punish me as this man always recited Sura Al-Mulk." Then, the punishment of the grave turns to his head, but his head prevents this punishment from happening. He says, "You cannot punish me because this man always recited Sura Al-Mulk." This Sura is indeed called the preventer that prevents the occurrence of punishment. It is stated in the Torah that whoever recites Surah Al-Mulk at night would be doing very good acts. (Hadith scholar, Al-Munthiri declares this narration to be saheeh (authentic) or hasan (good) in his book Al-Targheeb Wal-Tarheeb, Volume 2, p. 320. Sheikh Albani also affirms the authenticity of this narration in Saheeh Al-Targheeb, hadith no. 1475) 

Here, Abdullah ibn Mas'ud says that the Torah says that the recitation of Sura Al-Mulk (Surah 67) will protect him from the punishment of the grave. I and everyone reading this article know very well that this is not found anywhere in today's Torah. It means that it was removed, thus indicating textual corruption.    

Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman (d. 36 A.H.)

Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman was very concerned when the Muslims were arguing with each other over the recitation of the Qur’an. This prompted him to reach out to Uthman b. Affan, who was the Caliph at the time find a solution:

Narrated Anas bin Malik: Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman came to Uthman at the time when the people of Sham (Syria) and the people of Iraq were waging war to conquer Armenia and Azerbaijan. Hudhaifa was afraid of their differences in the recitation of the Quran, so he said to Uthman, 'O chief of the Believers! Save this nation before they differ about the Book (Quran) as Jews and Christians did before'… [Bukhari]

It is striking that Hudhayfah compared the inevitable, if left unprevented, divide between the Muslims over the Qur’an’s recitation with how the Jews and Christians differ over their scriptures. Hudhayfah did not have exegetical differences in mind here, as the Muslims were arguing over the actual recitation of the Qur’an (due to their ignorance that the other side’s reading was valid); thus, this was a difference in opinion regarding the veracity of content as scripture.

Hudhayfah grew worried that if left unresolved, the differences would exacerbate to the level of Jews and Christians. This demonstrates that he understood that the Jews and Christians did not have the textual integrity of their scriptures intact. Commenting on Hudhayfah’s statement, Imam Mulla Ali Qari states in his Mirqat al-Mafateeh:

(قَبْلَ أَنْ يَخْتَلِفُوا فِي الْكِتَابِ) أَيِ الْقُرْآنِ (اخْتِلَافَ الْيَهُودِ وَالنَّصَارَى) بِالنَّصْبِ، أَيْ: كَاخْتِلَافِهِمْ فِي التَّوُرَاةِ وَالْإِنْجِيلِ إِلَى أَنْ حَرَّفُوا وَزَادُوا وَنَقَصُوا،

“before they differ about the Book,” that is the Qur’an. “as Jews and Christians did before,” That is similar to their differences regarding the Torah and Injeel to the point that they distorted, added to, and omitted from it.

Abdullah ibn Salam (d. 43 A.H.)

Now, we have to bear in mind that Abdullah ibn Salam was a very learned Rabbi and a scholar of the Torah before he became a Muslim:    

Saheeh Bukhari

Volume 4, Book 55, Number 546:

Narrated Anas

When 'Abdullah bin Salam heard the arrival of the Prophet at Medina, he came to him and said, "I am going to ask you about three things which nobody knows except a prophet: What is the first portent of the Hour? What will be the first meal taken by the people of Paradise? Why does a child resemble its father, and why does it resemble its maternal uncle" Allah's Apostle said, "Gabriel has just now told me of their answers." 'Abdullah said, "He (i.e. Gabriel), from among all the angels, is the enemy of the Jews." Allah's Apostle said, "The first portent of the Hour will be a fire that will bring together the people from the east to the west; the first meal of the people of Paradise will be Extra-lobe (caudate lobe) of fish-liver. As for the resemblance of the child to its parents: If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife and gets discharge first, the child will resemble the father, and if the woman gets discharge first, the child will resemble her." On that 'Abdullah bin Salam said, "I testify that you are the Apostle of Allah." 'Abdullah bin Salam further said, "O Allah's Apostle! The Jews are liars, and if they should come to know about my conversion to Islam before you ask them (about me), they would tell a lie about me." The Jews came to Allah's Apostle and 'Abdullah went inside the house. Allah's Apostle asked (the Jews), "What kind of man is 'Abdullah bin Salam among you?" They replied, "He is the most learned person among us, and the best among us, and the son of the best among us." Allah's Apostle said, "What do you think if he embraces Islam (will you do as he does)?" The Jews said, "May Allah save him from it." Then 'Abdullah bin Salam came out in front of them saying, "I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah." Thereupon they said, "He is the evilest among us, and the son of the evilest among us," and continued talking badly of him. 

Also, in another narration:

ما كان حين فتحت نهاوند أصاب [ المسلمون ] سبايا من اليهود ، فأقبل رأس الجالوت فتلقى سبايا اليهود ، فأصاب رجل من المسلمين جارية وضيئة صبيحة ، فقال لي : هل لك أن تمشي معي إلى هذا الإنسان عسى أن يثمن لي في هذه الجارية ، فانطلقت معه فدخلنا على شيخ مستكبر له ترجمان فقال لرجل معه : سل هذه الجارية هل وقع عليها هذا العربي ؟ ورأيت أنه غار حين رأى حسنها ، فراطنها بلسانه ففهمت الذي قال ، [ قال ] : فقلت له : لقد أثمت بما تجد في كتابك بسؤالك هذه الجارية عما وراء ثيابها . فقال لي : كذبت ، وما يدريك ما في كتابي ، قال : قلت: أنا أعلم بكتابك منك ، قال : أنت أعلم بكتابي مني ؟ ! قلت : نعم ، أنا أعلم بكتابك منك ، قال : من هذا ؟ قالوا : عبد الله بن سلام ، قال : فانصرفت من عنده ذلك اليوم ، فأرسل إلي رسولا : لتأتيني بعزمة وبعث إلي بدابة ، قال : فانطلقت إليه احتسابا رجاء أن يسلم ، فحبسني عنده ثلاثة أيام أقرأ عليه التوراة ويبكي ، فقلت له : إنه والله لهو النبي الذي تجدونه في كتابكم ، فقال لي : فكيف أصنع باليهود ؟ قال : قلت : إن اليهود لن يغنوا عنك من الله شيئا ، فأبى أن يسلم ، وغلب عليه الشقاء

At the time when Muslims had conquered the city of Nahwawnd, female Jewish prisoners were captured. The head chief of the Jews arrived to free some of those prisoners. I was approached by a Muslim who captured a beautiful Jewish female prisoner and asked me to go with him, hoping that someone would pay more to free this prisoner. So I walked with him until we entered an old arrogant man who had a translator with him. The old man asked another man to ask the slave girl whether the Arab man slept with her or not. I noticed that he envied the Arab man for the beauty of the lady with him, so he talked with her in their language, which I understood. Upon that, I said to him, "You have committed a sin and went against your book (Torah) by asking her about her body and what is behind her clothes." He replied: "You are lying! What do you know about my book?" I said: "I know your book more than you do." The old man replied, "You know it more than I do?" I replied saying: "Yes, I do". Then the old man asked about who I am so he was told that it is Abdullah bin Sallam. Then I left that old man later on that day. Then, after a while, that old man sent me a message asking me to visit him. So I agreed, hoping that he would enter Islam. I stayed with him for three days, reciting the Torah on him while he was crying and weeping. I said to him: "I swear by Allah, he is the prophet who you find his description in your book." He replied: "What will I do if the Jews find out about me entering Islam." I said: "The Jewish will not help you if Allah destines something for you." So he refused to enter Islam after all that and he was meant to be doomed. (Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani declared this hadeeth authentic (saheeh mawquf) in Al-Mataalib al-'Aalyah, Volume 4, no. 218) 

As we can see, Abdullah ibn Salam was very knowledgeable about the Torah. The following narration tells the story of how Abdullah ibn Salam accepted Islam. 

Saheeh Bukhari

Volume 6, Book 60, Number 7:

'Abdullah bin Salam heard the news of the arrival of Allah's Apostle (at Medina) while he was on a farm collecting its fruits. So he came to the Prophet and said, 'I will ask you about three things which nobody knows unless he be a prophet. Firstly, what is the first portent of the Hour? What is the first meal of the people of Paradise? And what makes a baby look like its father or mother?'. The Prophet said, 'Just now Gabriel has informed me about that.'

'Abdullah said, 'Gabriel?' The Prophet said, 'Yes.' 'Abdullah said, 'He, among the angels is the enemy of the Jews.' On that the Prophet recited this Holy Verse:-- 'Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel (let him die in his fury!) for he has brought it (i.e. Qur'an) down to your heart by Allah's permission.' (2.97) Then he added, 'As for the first portent of the Hour, it will be a fire that will collect the people from the East to West. And as for the first meal of the people of Paradise, it will be the caudite (i.e. extra) lobe of the fish liver. And if a man's discharge proceeded that of the woman, then the child resembles the father, and if the woman's discharge proceeded that of the man, then the child resembles the mother.'   

Now, Abdullah ibn Salam was learned of the Torah and was convinced of the Prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him) after receiving the answers to those questions. Surely, Abdullah ibn Salam would only have known this from the Torah since he did not follow any other divine book. However, we don't find the answers that the Prophet (peace be upon him) gave to Abdullah ibn Salam in the Bible today. Therefore, it must have been removed, thus indicating textual corruption.

Someone might argue that the manuscripts that Christians have today predate the existence of Abdullah ibn Salam. But again, my argument does not imply that Abdullah ibn Salam had the true Torah with him. He could have received this information through oral traditions from the minority of righteous believers who knew the original contents of the Torah even though they didn't have it with them in textual form. This is a possibility. 

Either way, the argument is not whether the Islamic claim is true. The argument is that when we Muslims examine our Islamic teachings, we come to realize that the Torah has been textually tampered with.  

Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn al-’Aass (d. 63 A.H.)  

The following narration shows us what Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn al-'Aass is reported to have said once during a conversation:

Saheeh Bukhari

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 335:

Narrated Ata bin Yasar:

I met Abdullah bin 'Amr bin Al-'As and asked him, "Tell me about the description of Allah's Apostle which is mentioned in Torah (i.e. Old Testament.") He replied, 'Yes. By Allah, he is described in Torah with some of the qualities attributed to him in the Quran as follows:

"O Prophet ! We have sent you as a witness (for Allah's True religion) And a giver of glad tidings (to the faithful believers), And a warner (to the unbelievers) And guardian of the illiterates. You are My slave and My messenger (i.e. Apostle). I have named you "Al-Mutawakkil" (who depends upon Allah). You are neither discourteous, harsh Nor a noise-maker in the markets And you do not do evil to those Who do evil to you, but you deal With them with forgiveness and kindness. Allah will not let him (the Prophet) Die till he makes straight the crooked people by making them say: "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah," With which will be opened blind eyes And deaf ears and enveloped hearts."  

Here, we see that Abdullah bin Amr stated that the Torah once said the Prophet would be a guardian of the illiterates. However, in today's Bible, we do not see this statement. This means that this statement was taken out, therefore indicating textual corruption.

Ibn Abbas (d. 68 A.H.)

Ibn Abbas is one of the greatest companions of the Prophet peace be upon him. He holds much authority as a Quranic interpreter, for the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) prayed to Allah to make Ibn Abbas a great commentator of the Qur'an and scholar of Islam in general: 

Saheeh Bukhari

Volume 001, Book 003, Hadith Number 075.

Narated By Ibn 'Abbas : Once the Prophet embraced me and said, "O Allah! Bestow on him the knowledge of the Book (Qur'an)."

Volume 1, Book 4, Number 145:

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:

Once the Prophet entered a lavatory and I placed water for his ablution. He asked, "Who placed it?" He was informed accordingly and so he said, "O Allah! Make him (Ibn 'Abbas) a learned scholar in religion (Islam)."  (See also Volume 005, Book 057, Hadith Numbers 100 & 101A) 

Saheeh Muslim

Book 031, Hadith Number 6055.

Chapter : The merits of 'Abdullah b. 'Abbas (Allah be pleased with him).

Ibn 'Abbas reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) came to privy and I placed for him water for ablution, When he came out he said: Who placed it here? And in a version of Zuhair they (the Companions) said, and in the version of Abu Bakr (the words are): I said: It is Ibn 'Abbas (who has done that), whereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: May Allah grant him deep understanding of religion. 

Based on this, we can clearly see that Ibn Abbas holds much authority when he speaks about religion. Therefore, it would be interesting to see what Ibn Abbas had to say regarding the scriptures of the Christians and Jews:

Saheeh Bukhari

Volume 9, Book 93, Number 613:

Narrated 'Ikrima:

Ibn 'Abbas said, "How can you ask the people of the Scriptures about their Books while you have Allah's Book (the Qur'an) which is the most recent of the Books revealed by Allah, and you read it in its pure undistorted form?"

Volume 9, Book 93, Number 614:

Narrated 'Ubaidullah bin 'Abdullah:

'Abdullah bin 'Abbas said, "O the group of Muslims! How can you ask the people of the Scriptures about anything while your Book which Allah has revealed to your Prophet contains the most recent news from Allah and is pure and not distorted? Allah has told you that the people of the Scriptures have changed some of Allah's Books and distorted it and wrote something with their own hands and said, 'This is from Allah, so as to have a minor gain for it. Won't the knowledge that has come to you stop you from asking them? No, by Allah, we have never seen a man from them asking you about that (the Book Al-Qur'an ) which has been revealed to you. 

Ibn Hazm describes the above narrations as:

The soundest Isnad (chain of transmission) or ascription to Ibn Abbas, which is exactly our view. There is no difference between the companions on this matter. (Ibn Hazm, Al-Fasl fi'l Milal, Volume 2, p. 3, cited here)  

Here we see that Ibn Hazm reinforces the fact that Ibn Abbas truly held this position and that even the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) held the same position as well. Thus, there was a consensus among the companions that the Christians and the Jews had textually corrupted their scriptures.  

Ibn Abbas said in his commentary on Surah 2:79:

(Therefore woe) severe punishment, and it is said this means: a valley in Hell (be unto those who write the Scripture with their hands) change the description and traits of Muhammad (pbuh) in the Book (and then say, " This is) in the Book that has come (from Allah " , that they may purchase) through changing and altering it (a small gain therewith) a small gain in terms of means of subsistence and surplus of property. (Woe unto them) theirs is a severe punishment (for what their hands have written) have altered (and woe unto them) and theirs is a severe punishment (for what they earn thereby) of unlawful earnings and bribes. (Ibn Abbas, Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn 'Abbâs, Commentary on Surah 2:79, Source 

Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi (d. 450 A.H.) says in his commentary of the Qur'an, An-Nukat wal-'Uyun on Surah 2, Verse 79:

 أحدهما: أن الأُمّي: الذي لا يكتب ولا يقرأ، وهو قول مجاهد وأظهرُ تأويله.                                

والثاني: أنَّ الأُمّيين: قوم لم يصدقوا رسولاً أرسله الله، ولا كتاباً أنزله الله، وكتبوا كتاباً بأيديهم، وقال الجهال لقومهم: هذا من عند الله، وهذا قول ابن عباس              

Firstly: The word Ummi in the verse could refer to someone who does not know how to read or write, and this is the statement of Mujaahid and the more apparent interpretation. 

Secondly: The word Ummi in the verse could refer to a people who did not believe in a Messenger that Allah has sent, and they also don't believe in a book that Allah has sent, and they wrote a book with their own hands and told the ignorant people "This is from Allah", and this is the stance of Ibn Abbas. (Source)      

Imam Tabari elaborates on Ibn Abbas's position in his commentary on Surah 2:42: 

  { وَلَا تَلْبِسُوا الْحَقّ بِالْبَاطِلِ } قَالَ : الْحَقّ : التَّوْرَاة الَّذِي أَنَزَلَ اللَّه عَلَى مُوسَى , وَالْبَاطِل : الَّذِي كَتَبُوهُ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ

 فَرُوِيَ عَنْ اِبْن عَبَّاس وَغَيْره لَا تَخْلِطُوا مَا عِنْدكُمْ مِنْ الْحَقّ فِي الْكِتَاب بِالْبَاطِلِ وَهُوَ التَّغْيِير وَالتَّبْدِيل

Regarding the verse 'Confound not truth with falsehood': The truth: it is the Torah that Allah revealed to Moses. Falsehood: it is what they have written from their own hands.... It was reported that Ibn Abbas and others said, 'Do not mix the truth of what you have in the Book with falsehood,' and that is the changing and substituting. (Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Jami' al-bayan fi ta'wil al-Qur'an, Commentary on Surah 2:42, Source)   

In his commentary on Surah 2:75, Imam Ar Razi quotes al-Qadi 'Abd Al-Jabbar (d. 415 A.H.) as affirming that Ibn Abbas's opinion towards the Christian and Jewish scriptures is that there have been additions and subtractions made to and from them. (SourceAgain, this clearly indicates that Ibn Abbas's position is that the scriptures have been textually corrupted.  

Another narration regarding Ibn Abbas:

كانت ملوك بعد عيسى بن مريم عليه الصلاة والسلام بدلوا التوراة والإنجيل وكان فيهم مؤمنون يقرؤون التوراة قيل لملوكهم ما نجد شتما أشد من شتم يشتمونا هؤلاء إنهم يقرؤون { ومن لم يحكم بما أنزل الله فأولئك هم الكافرون } وهؤلاء الآيات مع ما يعيبونا به في أعمالنا في قراءتهم فادعهم فليقرؤوا كما نقرأ وليؤمنوا كما آمنا فدعاهم فجمعهم وعرض عليهم القتل أو يتركوا قراءة التوراة والإنجيل إلا ما بدلوا منها

Narrated by Sa'eed ibn Juabair: Ibn Abbas said: The kings after the time of Jesus the son of Mary (peace be upon him) substituted the Torah and Gospel and there used to be among them believers who were reading the Torah. It was said to the kings: We do not find an insult greater than the insult of those that read "And those who do not rule by what Allah has revealed, they are disbelievers," and their recitation of this similar kind of verses which they shame us within our daily activities. So tell them to read just as what we read and let them believe just as we believe.' So the king summoned them and gathered them together. He proposed either death to them or that they leave the recitation of the Torah and Gospel except what they substitute in place of it. [(Sunan Al-Nisaa'i, hadith no. 5305), Source, Sheikh Nasr Al-Deen Al-Albani authenticated this narration in Sunan Al-Nisaa'i, hadith no. 5400] 

So here we see that Ibn Abbas talks about how the kings of the past used to force people to switch to their corrupted version of the scriptures. This indicates that their scriptures contained false writings; thus, the scriptures used by the masses were textually corrupted. Since the kings forced the people to switch to their scriptures or had them killed, this meant that the true uncorrupted scriptures became lost or possibly remained safe with a very small number of people. Still, it seems clear that the corrupted copies were distributed more widely.   

Some Christians try to distort the position of Ibn Abbas by quoting the following narration from him:

"By the Mount and an Inscribed Book" (52:1-2): Qatada said that "mastur" means "written". "Yasturun" (68:1) means, "they inscribe", and the Umm al-Kitab (43:4) is the whole of the Qur'an and its source. [He said that] "ma talfizu" (50:18) means: "He does not say anything but that it is written against him." Ibn 'Abbas said, "Both good and evil are recorded," and "yuharrufuna" (4:46) means, "they remove".NO ONE REMOVES THE WORKS OF ONE OF THE BOOKS OF ALLAH ALMIGHTY, BUT THEY TWIST THEM, INTERPRETING THEM IMPROPERLY. "Dirasatihim: (6:156) means "their recitation" "Wa'iyya" (69:12) is preserving, "ta'iha" (69:12) means to "preserve it". "This Qur'an has been revealed to me by inspiration that I may warn you," meaning the people of Makka, "and all whom it reaches"(6:19) meaning this Qur'an, so he is its warner. 

This could be answered in more than one way.  

First of all, where the full chain of transmission? We can't find any full chain of transmission for this statement attributed to Ibn Abbas. Famous hadith scholar Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani said regarding this narration: 

I did not find it with continuous chain of reporters (mawsoul) on authority of Ibn 'Abbas in spite of the fact that what is said before it is from his words as well as that is after it....

Many of our folks (ashabena) have explicitly declared that the Torah and the Gospel has been corrupted (hurrifat) in contradiction with what Al-Bukhari mentions here [on authority of Ibn 'Abbas] (Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani, Fath-ul-Bari fe Sharh Sahih-el-Bukhari, Book of "Oneness of God", Chapter 55, Number 6223) 

All scholars of hadith have agreed that you cannot judge a narration to be authentic unless you have the complete chain of transmission to examine and then conclude whether it is authentic or not (unless it is mursal and has specific conditions being applied to it or if it has other corroborating evidence). In his commentary, Imam al-Tabari simply quotes Mujahid ibn Jabr Al-Makhzumi (d. 104 A.H.), who then quotes the statement. However, there is a 200 hundred-year gap between Imam al-Tabari and Mujahid! Where are the two or three people who should have come in the middle of the chain?

Secondly, it contradicts the authentic narrations and well-known position of Ibn Abbas on the matter, and that is that he believed that the Jews and Christians textually corrupted their scriptures.  

Imam Al-Badr al-'Aini notes in his commentary on Sahih al-Bukhari:  

Al-Bukhari frequently relates reports and sayings of Sahaba and others without isnad (chain of transmission) (Al-Badr Al-'Aini, Umdat-ul-Qari, Volume 1, page 9) 

Here, we can see that this alleged statement from Ibn Abbas is one of those examples; therefore, it must be rejected.  

Thirdly, Ibn Abbas's statement could be reinterpreted to reconcile it with the other statements that he has made. Ibn Abbas could have intended to say that they changed what was in their possession of the text. Still, they could not change the original true text, which is with Allah inal-Lawh al-Mahfudh (preserved tablet), since the speech of Allah is uncreated and no one can ever make it go lost completely, and removing the words from the books here on earth does not mean that God's words have become totally lost but lost here on earth only. 

Ibn Kathir says in his commentary of Surah 85, Verse 22:

(Nay! This is a Glorious Qur'an.) meaning, magnificent and noble.

(In Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz!) meaning, among the most high gathering, guarded from any increase, decrease, distortion, or change. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Source) 

Here, we see that the Qur'an is also preserved in the Preserved Tablet from being corrupted, and this strongly raises the possibility that this is what Ibn Abbas was referring to when he made (assuming that he did) that statement. He intended to say that the speech of God is in the Preserved Tablet (including the original Torah and Gospel) and cannot be changed. 

We must conclude by saying that the authentic narrations clearly indicate that Ibn Abbas supported textual corruption and that one narration whose chain of transmission we cannot even examine should not cause us to doubt the position of Ibn Abbas.   

 Evidence from the Statements of the Early Muslims

The early Muslims are a very important source or religious authority to appeal to when it comes to understanding Islam. The Prophet (peace be upon him) described the early Muslim generations:

Saheeh Bukhari

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 819:

Narrated Zahdam bin Mudrab:

I heard Imran bin Husain saying, "The Prophet said, 'The best people are those living in my generation, then those coming after them, and then those coming after (the second generation)."

Thus, we must appeal to the best of the Muslims and see how they understood Islam. We know from enemy testimony that the earliest Muslims believed that the previous scriptures were textually corrupted (see here). Nevertheless, we will still look at some specific examples of the early Muslims and see what their perspectives were regarding the Christian and Jewish scriptures.  

Evidence from the statements of Ka'b Al-Ahbar (d. 14 A.H.)

Ka'b Al Ahbar was a prominent Rabbi who converted to Islam some years after the Prophet's death.  

He is reported to have said in an authentic narration:

في السطر الأول ‏ ‏محمد ‏ ‏رسول الله عبدي المختار لا فظ ولا غليظ ولا ‏ ‏صخاب ‏ ‏في الأسواق ولا ‏ ‏يجزي بالسيئة السيئة ولكن يعفو ويغفر مولده ‏ ‏بمكة ‏ ‏وهجرته ‏ ‏بطيبة ‏ ‏وملكه ‏ ‏بالشام

 ‏ ‏وفي السطر الثاني ‏ ‏محمد ‏ ‏رسول الله أمته الحمادون يحمدون الله في السراء والضراء يحمدون الله في كل منزلة ويكبرون على كل ‏ ‏شرف ‏ ‏رعاة ‏ ‏الشمس يصلون الصلاة إذا جاء وقتها ولو كانوا على رأس ‏ ‏كناسة ‏ ‏ويأتزرون على أوساطهم ويوضئون أطرافهم وأصواتهم بالليل في جو السماء كأصوات النحل

Ka'b Al-Ahbar said: "The first line - of the Torah - says: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and My chosen slave. Verily, he is neither rude nor harsh. And he is a man who would not yell or scream in markets. And he will never award an ill deed with an ill deed, on the contrary, he will, always award ill deeds with forgiveness. He is birth will take place in Mecca and his immigration will be to Taiba (one of the names of Madinah) and his dominion will be the Sham (what is now known as Palestine, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan).

The second line - of the Torah- says: "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. His nation are constantly praising, they praise Allah for whatever occurs to them whether it is good or bad. They praise and thank Allah in every situation and glorify Allah while they stand on a place that is higher than floor. They are people who always watch the sun (to know prayer times) and pray each prayer on its time even if they were in a filthy place. They wear Izaar that they wrap around their waists. And they wash and cleanse their parts at nights and their voices during the time of night are like that of bees (referring to their prayers). 
(Sunan Al-Daarimi, Kitab: Al-Muqadima (The Introduction), Bab: Sifat Salatul Nabi Salla Allahu A'layhi Wassallam fi Al-Kutub Qabl Ba'thuhu (The Chapter on the Characteristics of the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the Books Before His Coming), hadith no. 7, Source, This narration was authenticated by Sheikh Nasr Al-Deen Al-Albani in one of his fatwas (verdicts) over here.A very similar narration can also be found in Al-Haakim's Mustadrak al Saheehayn, Volume 2, no. 614 and Ibn Asaakir also narrated it and Sheikh Nasr Al-Deen Al-Albani declared this narration to be sound in his Silsila Al-Ahaadeeth Al-Saheeha, hadith no. 2458) 

Here, we see that Ka'b ibn Al-Ahbar gives descriptions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) from the Torah, which we cannot find in today's Bibles. Some might argue that this narration alludes to Isaiah 42; however, if one compares the narration with the passage in Isaiah, one would see that many traits are missing. (e.g., Ka'b mentions that the Prophets community will know how to pray by looking at the sun, yet this is not found in the Bible). 

In another narration: 

حدثنا ‏ ‏عمرو بن عاصم ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏حماد بن سلمة ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏عاصم بن بهدلة ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏مغيث ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏كعب ‏ ‏قال ‏
‏عليكم بالقرآن فإنه فهم العقل ونور الحكمة وينابيع العلم وأحدث الكتب بالرحمن عهدا وقال في التوراة يا ‏ ‏محمد ‏ ‏إني منزل عليك توراة حديثة تفتح فيها أعينا عميا وآذانا صما وقلوبا ‏ ‏غلفا 

Ka'b ibn Al-Ahbar also states in one narration that God said in the Torah "O Muhammad, I am revealing to you a new Torah with which you will open the eyes of the blind, ears of the deaf and the sealed hearts. [(Sunan Al Daarimi, Hadith no. 3193, Source), Hadith scholar, Hussain Salim Asad al-Darani in his book on the evaluation of Musnad al-Daarimi declared this narration's chain of transmission to be Hasan (good). (See no. 3370, p. 2095)]

In another narration: 

عن ابن عباس أنه سأل كعبا : كيف تجد نعت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في التوراة ؟ قال كعب : نجده محمد بن عبد الله ، يولد بمكة ، ويهاجر إلى طابة ، ويكون ملكه بالشام 

Ibn Abbas asked Ka`b, "How do you find the description of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, in the Torah? He said, "We find him as Muhammad Ibn `Abdullaah, he is born in Makkah, and he will migrate to Taabah (another name for Madeenah), and his kingdom will be in the Shaam". (Ibn Rajab stated that this was narrated from Ka'b through many chains in Rasaa'il Ibn Rajab, 3/191)   

In another narration:

كعب قال : أجد في التوراة أن صلاة الجماعة تضاعف بعدد الرجال درجة ، إن كانوا مائة فمائة ، وإن كانوا ألفا فألف درجة 

"I find in the Torah that the congregational Salat (prayer) double by way of the number of men by a degree, if there were one hundred then [it doubles by] one-hundred, and if there were one-thousand then [it doubles by] one-thousand degrees." (This hadeeth is authentic and could be found in Fathul Baari, number or page 4)   

Ka'b says that all the above things are in the Torah, yet we don't find most of them in today's Bible.  

Here is a conversation that occurred between Ka'b and the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him):

Sunan Abu Dawud

Book 3, Number 1041:

Narrated AbuHurayrah:

The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) said: The best day on which the sun has risen is Friday; on it Adam was created, on it he was expelled (from Paradise), on it his contrition was accepted, on it he died, and on it the Last Hour will take place. On Friday every beast is on the lookout from dawn to sunrise in fear of the Last Hour, but not jinn and men, and it contains a time at which no Muslim prays and asks anything from Allah but He will give it to him. Ka'b said: That is one day every year. So I said: It is on every Friday. Ka'b read the Torah and said: The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) has spoken the truth. AbuHurayrah said: I met Abdullah ibn Salam and told him of my meeting with Ka'b. Abdullah ibn Salam said: I know what time it is. AbuHurayrah said: I asked him to tell me about it. Abdullah ibn Salam said: It is at the very end of Friday. I asked: How can it be when the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) has said: "No Muslim finds it while he is praying...." and this is the moment when no prayer is offered. Abdullah ibn Salam said: Has the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) not said: "If anyone is seated waiting for the prayer, he is engaged in the prayer until he observes it." I said: Yes, it is so. (Sheikh Al-Albani declared this hadith authentic in Sunan Abu Dawud, hadith no. 1046) 

Notice, how Ka'b read the Torah and affirms that what the Prophet (peace be upon him) stated was true. Notice that the Prophet (peace be upon him) states that Adam was created on a Friday. This is true for if one reads the creation account in Genesis he will see that Adam was created on the sixth day (being Friday). However, where in the Bible today do we find the following:

"and it contains a time at which no Muslim prays and asks anything from Allah but He will give it to him."

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said this regarding Friday. Where is this in the Bible?

Ka'b has stated several things about the Prophet (peace be upon him) that was or should have been in the Torah during their time and it is not in the Bible today. This is an indirect proof that the Bible has been textually corrupted.    

Evidence from the statement of Abul-`Aaliyah (d. 90 A.H.)

Abul-`Aaliyah was a great Imam of Tafseer during his time. Imam Tabari quotes Abul-`Aaliyah as saying:

هُوَ مَكْتُوب عِنْدهمْ فِي الْكِتَاب الْأَوَّل : يَا ابْن آدَم عَلِّمْ مَجَّانًا كَمَا عُلِّمْت مَجَّانًا

It is written in the first book of their scripture (the Jews): "O son of Adam teach for free just as you have been taught for free." (Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Jami' al-bayan fi ta'wil al-Qur'an, Commentary on Surah 2:41, Source)   

Abul-`Aaliyah basically states that the first book of the Jews says that particular statement about Adam. That statement is nowhere to be found in the Bible today (i.e., Genesis).  

Muqatil bin Sulaiman (d. 150 A.H.)

Early Qur'anic commentator Muqatil bin Sulaiman says in his commentary on Surah 2, Verse 79:

 رءوس اليهود بالمدينة محوا نعت محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم من التوراة، وكتبوا سوى نعته

The leaders of the Jews in Medina erased the descriptions and traits of Muhammad (peace be upon him) from the Torah, and they wrote other traits and descriptions (Source)

Here, we have an early Muslim commentator of the Qur'an who clearly speaks about the textual corruption of the Torah. He states that the descriptions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) were erased from the Torah. This clearly shows that he believed that the text from the Torah was removed. Then, he states that the Jews wrote other descriptions, which indicates that text has been added to the Torah.  

Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi (d. 169 A.H.)

The Caliph Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi clearly told his critic, the patriarch Timothy, that the Bible had contained many prophecies about Muhammad but the People of the Book had corrupted their texts and they had removed the prophecies. (Timothy, p. 33 ff., cited here) 

Evidence from the conversation of Abu Jafar al-Ma'mun ibn Harun (d. 218 A.H.)

Imam Al-Qurtubi , in his commentary on Surah 15, Verse 9, relates a lengthy story of how a Jew became a Muslim. This took place during the reign of Abu Jafar al-Ma'mun ibn Harun sometime in the early 800's (C.E.).

The Jew was asked about how he became a Muslim. He said that he once bought three copies of each of the scriptures: Torah, Gospel, and Qur'an. 

He took each one of these books and began to remove and add some text to the books. He then stated that he went to the Jews and Christians and tried selling them the distorted books, and they bought them. He then stated that he went to the Muslims and attempted to sell them the distorted Qur'anic copies, but they discovered the additions and deletions and refused to buy them. He then stated that he was sure God had protected the Qur'an and concluded Islam was the true religion. 

He told this story to the Muslim ruler al-Ma'mun, who then acknowledged and blessed his decision. 

This shows that the early Muslims at that time believed that the scriptures of the Jews and Christians were textually corrupted and had not been appropriately preserved. 

For the story, read Abu 'Abdullah Al-Qurtubi's, Tasfir al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an, Commentary on Surah 15:9, Source   

Abu 'Uthman 'Amr b. Bahr al-Fuqaymi al-Basri al-Jahiz (d. 255 A.H.)

Abu 'Uthman 'Amr b. Bahr al-Fuqaymi al-Basri al-Jahiz argues that both Christian transmission and exegesis are corrupt: "We are certain that he (Jesus) came with none except pure unity and monotheism - that is supported by reason - but not the Trinity. We know that the Christians are in error both on the side of transmission and on the side of exegesis." (Abu 'Uthman Amru Ibn Bahr aj-Jahiz, Thalath Rasa'il, ed. by J. Finkel (Cairo, al-Salafiyya Press, 1926), p.143, cited here)) 

Evidence from the Statement of Sahl (d. ? A.H.) 

رَوَى ابنُ سَعْدٍ بِسَنَدٍ حسنٍ عَنْ سهلٍ مولى عتبة وَكَانَ نصرانياً فأسلم وَقَالَ: إنه مكتوب فِي الإنجيل: "إنه لا قصير ولا طويل، أبيض، ذو ضفيرين، بَيْنَ كتفيه خاتم، يكثر الاحتباء، ولا يقبل لصدقة، ويركب الحمار والبعير، ويحتلب الشاة، ويلبس القميص مرقوعاً، ومن فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ فَقَدْ برئ منَ الكبرِ وَهُوَ يَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ، وَهُوَ مِنْ ذرية إِسْمَاعِيْل، اسمه أحْمَدُ".

Ibn Sa'd reported on the authority of Sahl the master of Utba and he was a Christian who converted to Islam and he said: It is written in the Gospel (regarding Prophet Muhammad): "He is neither short nor tall, he is white, he has two braided locks of hair, between his two shoulders is a seal, he used to often sit while withholding his legs close to his chest, he does not accept charity, he rides a donkey and camel, and milk the sheep and he wears his shirt sowed" and whoever does this saves himself from arrogance and he (Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)) used to do this and he is from the lineage of Ishmael and his name is Ahmad. [This narration was authenticated by Sheikh Nasr Al-Deen Al-Albani in one of his fatwas (verdicts) over here by saying that the sanad (chain of transmission) was is hasan (good).] 

Again, I ask, where are these descriptions to be found in the Bible? 

Evidence from the Statements of the Muslim Scholars

No doubt, no one understands this wonderful religion of Islam more than the scholars who dedicate their lives to studying it. 

Abud-Dardaa (radyAllaahu 'anhu) reported: "I heard the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) say: Whoever treads a path due to which he seeks knowledge, Allaah will make him tread one of the paths towards Paradise. And the angels lower their wings out of contentment for the seeker of knowledge. And verily all those in the heavens and in the earth, even the fish in the depths of the sea ask forgiveness for the scholar. And verily, the virtue of the scholar over the worshipper is like the virtue of the moon on the night of Al-Badr over all of the stars. Indeed, the scholars are the inheritors of the prophets, for the prophets do not leave behind a dinar or a dirham for inheritance, but rather, they leave behind knowledge. So whoever takes hold of it, has acquired a large share (i.e. of inheritance).'" (Reported by Abu Dawood, At-Tirmidhee and Ibn Hibbaan, and this is the wording found in his collection, in abridged form. Al-Bukhaaree mentioned in his Saheeh Collection in his Book of Knowledge, Chapter: Knowledge precedes Speech and Action, the part from it: "The scholars are the inheritors of the Prophets.", cited here)   

The scholars are the 'inheritors of the Prophets'; they inherit knowledge. Thus, they hold great religious authority to which we can appeal. We will, therefore, see what some of the greatest Islamic commentators said regarding their views towards the Christian and Jewish scriptures. 

It is funny how some Christians are bold enough to misquote or misrepresent our scholars. Take, for instance, this Christian:

On the other hand, it would be quite unfair for us to suggest that all Muslim scholars in the past and present have followed this procedure and adopted this conclusion. Ibn Khaldun, Ar-Razi, al-Ghazzali, and Ibn Taymiyya have honoured the integrity of the text of the Bible. (Theophilus, Dear Abdullah: First Letter, Source)

In short, I suggest we will have to play by the same rules. Muslim doctors who propagate that the Bible was corrupted also overlook that most eminent Muslim theologians like at-Tabari (died AD 855), al-Bukhari (died AD 870), as well as al-Ghazzali (died AD 1111) believed in the authenticity of the (Greek) Gospel text. (Theophilus, Dear Abdullah: 2nd Letter, Source) 

It is hilarious indeed that this Christian states that Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah was of the view that the Bible was not textually corrupted. At the same time, Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah wrote a book about the corruption of the Christian and Jewish texts. Ibn Taymiyyah is explicit on this matter. This will be shown later on below.

Imam at-Tabari and Imam Ar-Razi are usually victims of the Christian missionaries who misrepresent their views. We will see more of this below. 

As for al-Bukhari and Al-Ghazali, I found no statements made by them that they supported the textual transmission of Bible. I also couldn't find any statements from them regarding their views. However, since the Christians initiated their claim, the burden of proof is on them. 

Abu Uthman al-Jahiz (d. 255 A.H.)

Al-Jahiz said in his response to Christians in his letter, ar-Radd ‘ala al-Nassara:

أنهم إنما قبلوا دينهم عن أربعة أنفس: اثنان منهم من الحواريين بزعمهم: يوحنا، ومتى. واثنان من المستجيبة وهما: مارقش ولوقش، وهؤلاء الأربعة لا يؤمن عليهم الغلط ولا النسيان، ولا تعمد الكذب، ولا التواطؤ على الأمور، والاصطلاح على اقتسام الرياسة، وتسليم كل واحد منهم لصاحبه حصته التي شرطها له. فإن قالوا: إنهم كانوا أفضل من أن يتعمدوا كذبا، وأحفظ من أن ينسوا شيئا، وأعلى من أن يغلطوا في دين الله تعالى، أو يضيعوا عهدا. قلنا: إن اختلاف رواياتهم في الإنجيل، وتضادها في كتبهم، واختلافهم في نفس المسيح، مع اختلاف شرائعهم، دليل على صحة قولنا فيهم، وغفلتكم عنهم.  وما ينكر من مثل لوقش أن يقول باطلا، وليس من الحواريين، وقد كان يهوديا قبل ذلك بأيام يسيرة، ومن هو عندكم من الحواريين خير من لوقش عند المسيح في ظاهر الحكم بالطهارة، والطباع الشريفة، وبراءة الساحة.

They received their religion from four individuals, two of them according to their claim from the disciples John and Matthew, and two from those who responded later, al-mustajÄÂ�ªba, Mark and Luke. These four were not safeguarded against error, forgetfulness, intention to lie, collusion on matters, agreement to share leadership and mutually allowing what had been allotted to each. If the [Christians] say: They were too fine to lie intentionally, had memories too good to forget anything, were far above making an error in the religion of God the exalted or losing anything committed to them; we say: The differences in their accounts of the Gospel, the contradictions in meaning of their writings, and their differences over Christ himself, together with the differences in their legal teachings are evidence that what we have said about them is correct and that you have been careless about them. It cannot be denied that one such as Luke said what is wrong because he was not a disciple and had been a Jew a few days before. Those who according to you were disciples were better than Luke in Christ’s eyes, judging by appearance, in purity, noble character and blameless behavior. [Translation by David Thomas in his article, “The Bible and the Kalam,” in the book he edited: The Bible in Arab Christianity, p. 179]

Al-Qadi Ismail b. Ishaq (d. 282 A.H.)

Abu Amr al-Dani reported in his book, Tabaqat al-Qurra’ that Al-Qadi Ismail b. Ishaq was once asked:

لم جاز التبديل على أهل التوارة ولم يجز على القرآن؟

Why was it possible for the Torah to be substituted, but not the Qur’an?

To which Al-Qadi responded:

قال الله تعالى في أهل التوارة: «بما استحفظوا من كتاب الله» المائدة: ٤٤ فوكل الحفظ إليهم فجاز التبديل عليهم وقال تعالى في القرآن: «إنا نحن نزلنا الذكر وإنا له لحافظون» الحجر: ٩ فلم يجز التبديل عليه.

Allah said regarding the people of the Torah, “with which they were entrusted and of which they were made keepers.” [5:44]. He delegated the task of preservation to them, thus it was possible for it to be substituted. And He said regarding the Qur’an, “It is certainly We Who have revealed the Reminder, and it is certainly We Who will preserve it.” [15:9]. Hence, it is not possible for it to be substituted.

Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310 A.H.)

Imam Tabari says in his commentary on Surah 2:79:

يعني بِذَلِكَ : الَّذِينَ حَرَّفُوا كِتَاب اللَّه مِنْ يَهُود بَنِي إسْرَائِيل , وَكَتَبُوا كِتَابًا عَلَى مَا تَأَوَّلُوهُ مِنْ تَأْوِيلَاتهمْ مُخَالِفًا لِمَا أَنَزَلَ اللَّه عَلَى نَبِيّه مُوسَى صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ , ثُمَّ بَاعُوهُ مِنْ قَوْم لَا عِلْم لَهُمْ بِهَا وَلَا بِمَا فِي التَّوْرَاة جُهَّال بِمَا فِي كُتُب اللَّه    لِطَلَبِ عَرْض مِنْ الدُّنْيَا خَسِيس

What is meant by this: It is referring to those who distorted the book of Allah from the Jews of Bani Israel, and they wrote a book on which they put their interpretations in opposition to that which was revealed by Allah to his Prophet Moses peace be upon him, then they sold it to a people who have no knowledge of what is in it nor what is in the Torah and are ignorant of what is in the books of Allah in order to gain worthless materialistic benefits. (Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Jami' al-bayan fi ta'wil al-Qur'an, Commentary on Surah 2:79, Source)

Imam Tabari also states in his commentary on Surah 5:13:

يُحَرِّفُونَ كَلَام رَبّهمْ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَهُ عَلَى نَبِيّهمْ مُوسَى صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ , وَهُوَ التَّوْرَاة ,فَيُبَدِّلُونَهُ وَيَكْتُبُونَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ غَيْر الَّذِي أَنْزَلَهُ اللَّه جَلَّ وَعَزَّ عَلَى نَبِيّهمْ وَيَقُولُونَ لِجُهَّالِ النَّاس : هَذَا هُوَ كَلَام اللَّه الَّذِي أَنْزَلَهُ عَلَى نَبِيّه مُوسَى صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَالتَّوْرَاة الَّتِي أَوْحَاهَا إِلَيْهِ

They distort the speech of their Lord, which He sent down to their Prophet Moses peace be upon him, and that is the Torah, they substitute it and write from their own hands other than what Allah has revealed to their Prophet and they say to the ignorant ones of their people "This is the speech of Allah that He sent down to His Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) and the Torah that He revealed to him." (Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Jami' al-bayan fi ta'wil al-Qur'an, Commentary on Surah 5:13, Source)   

Imam Tabari elaborates more on his position in his commentary on Surah 2:42:   

{ وَلَا تَلْبِسُوا الْحَقّ بِالْبَاطِلِ } قَالَ : الْحَقّ : التَّوْرَاة الَّذِي أَنَزَلَ اللَّه عَلَى مُوسَى , وَالْبَاطِل : الَّذِي كَتَبُوهُ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ          

الْحَقّ بِالْبَاطِلِ " فَرُوِيَ عَنْ اِبْن عَبَّاس وَغَيْره لَا تَخْلِطُوا مَا عِنْدكُمْ مِنْ الْحَقّ فِي الْكِتَاب بِالْبَاطِلِ وَهُوَ التَّغْيِير وَالتَّبْدِيل , وَقَالَ أَبُو الْعَالِيَة قَالَتْ الْيَهُود مُحَمَّد مَبْعُوث وَلَكِنْ إِلَى غَيْرنَا فَإِقْرَارهمْ بِبَعْثِهِ حَقّ وَجَحْدهمْ أَنَّهُ بُعِثَ إِلَيْهِمْ بَاطِل , وَقَالَ اِبْن زَيْد :   الْمُرَاد بِالْحَقِّ التَّوْرَاة وَالْبَاطِل مَا بَدَّلُوا فِيهَا مِنْ ذِكْر مُحَمَّد عَلَيْهِ السَّلَام وَغَيْره وَقَالَ مُجَاهِد لَا تَخْلِطُوا الْيَهُودِيَّة وَالنَّصْرَانِيَّة   بِالْإِسْلَامِ , وَقَالَهُ قَتَادَة , وَقَدْ تَقَدَّمَ قُلْت :وَقَوْل اِبْن عَبَّاس أَصْوَب لِأَنَّهُ عَامّ فَيَدْخُل فِيهِ جَمِيع الْأَقْوَال وَاَللَّه الْمُسْتَعَان    

Regarding the verse 'Confound not truth with falsehood': The truth: it is the Torah that Allah revealed to Moses. Falsehood: it is what they have written from their own hands.... It was reported that Ibn Abbas and others said 'Do not mix the truth of what you have in the Book with falsehood' and that is the changing and substituting.

And Abu Al-A'alya said that the Jews said 'Muhammad has arisen but not from among us' so their acknowledgement of his arising is truth but their rejection of him is false, and Ibn Zayd said: What is intended by 'truth' is the Torah and 'falsehood' is what they substituted or changed from it from the mentioning of Muhammad (peace be upon him) and other issues. Mujahid said: Do not mix Judaism and Christianity with Islam, and Qutada said that as well. I say (Tabari): The statement of Ibn Abbas is more correct because it is more general and applies to the rest of the statements and Allah is the source of all strength. (Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Jami' al-bayan fi ta'wil al-Qur'an, Commentary on Surah 2:42, Source) 

We have already established that Ibn Abbas's position is that he believed that the Jews and Christians textually corrupted their scriptures. We see above that Imam Tabari supports Ibn Abbas's position. Notice how Imam Tabari quotes Ibn Abbas's position as stating that the Jews mixed the truth of what is in the Torah with the falsehood that they have written from their own hands and that the Jews mixed them together. This is clearly speaking about textual corruption. Then, notice at the end that Imam Tabari favors Ibn Abbas's position. Thus, Imam Tabari adopted the view that the Jewish text was textually corrupted.

Also, Ibn Kathir quotes Imam Tabari as saying:

Ibn Jarir said, "The Qur'an is trustworthy over the Books that preceded it. Therefore, whatever in these previous Books conforms to the Qur'an is true, and whatever disagrees with the Qur'an is false.'' (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Source, You can also see Al-Tabari saying this himself in his commentary on Surah 2:41) 

Here we see that Imam Al-Tabari is saying that the Qur'an is a criterion over the books before it (this includes the Christians and Jewish scriptures) and points out what is false and true in them. Clearly, Imam Tabari believed in the textual corruption of the books of the Christians and the Jews, otherwise he would not have uttered the last part of his statement 'and whatever disagrees with the Qur'an is false.'

 Az-Zajjaj (d. 311 A.H.)

Abu al-Layth al-Samarqandi (d. 373 A.H.), the well known Hanafi scholar in his commentary of the Qur'an known as Bahr al-'Ulum on Surah 2, verse 79 quotes Az-Zajjaj as saying:

وذلك أن رؤساء اليهود محوا نعت محمد - صلى الله عليه وسلم - ثم كتبوا غير نعته،                  

The leaders of the Jews erased the traits and descriptions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), then they wrote things besides his traits and descriptions. 

Notice how the word 'erased' is used and then the same people 'wrote' different descriptions of the Prophet to come. Az-Zajjaj clearly believed in the textual corruption of the Torah.  

Abu Ja’far at-Tahawi (d. 321 A.H.)  

Al-Tahawi in his Sharh Mushkil al-Athar comments on the narration where the Prophet (peace be upon him) confronted the Jews about hiding the punishment of stoning the adulterer. He then poses and responds to a rhetorical question:

كيف تقبلون هذا عن رسول الله صلعم، في رجوعه إلى التوراة الذي أعلمه الله عز وجل أن أهلها قد نقلوها وكتبوا فيها ما ليس منها بقوله عز وجل

Then one said: How can you accept [this narration] from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) regarding his referring back to the Torah, which Allah informed him it’s people (i.e., the Jews) had transmitted it and written in it what is not from it as the speech of God?

This is very interesting as it shows that al-Tahawi is fully aware that textual corruption is the accepted stance among the Muslims of his time toward the Torah.

Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (d. 333 A.H.)

Abu Mansur al-Maturidi states in his Qur’anic commentary, Tafsir Ta’wilaat Ahlus-Sunnah:

وقوله: (بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ). أي: من تحريف التوراة والإنجيل؛ لأن قول النصارى (نَحْنُ أَبْنَاءُ اللَّهِ وَأَحِبَّاؤُهُ)، لم يكن في الإنجيل، وقول اليهود: (لَنْ يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ إِلَّا مَنْ كَانَ هُودًا)، لم يكن في التوراة، ولكنهم غيروا وبدلوا؛ فلا يتمنون الموت بما قدمت أيديهم من تحريف هذه الآيات وتبديلها وتغيير نعت مُحَمَّد، ﵊.

And His saying: "because of what their hands have done." Meaning: through distorting the Torah and the Gospel. Because the statement of the Christians, "We are the children of God and His beloved" was not in the Gospel, and the statement of the Jews "None will enter Paradise except he who is a Jew" was not in the Torah. However, they altered and substituted [their scriptures]. Thus, they do not wish for death because of what their hands have done from distorting these verses, substituting them, and altering the description of Muhammad (peace be upon him).

Al-Mutahhar b. Tahir Al-Maqdisi (d. 355 A.H.)

Camilla Adang states regarding al-Maqdisi:

Al-Maqdisi claims that the text of the Torah was subjected to alteration and corruption right from the beginning. During the very lifetime of Moses, the seventy elders who had joined him on Mount Sinai distorted the divine revelation.40 Much later, during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, the text itself was burned.

In al-Maqdisi's view, the theory that the Torah has been falsified is supported by the fact that there are certain discrepancies between the Hebrew Torah, the Greek Torah of the Christians, and the Samaritan one…(Camilla Adang, MUSLIM WRITERS ON JUDAISM AND THE HEBREW BIBLE: From lbn Rabban to lbn Hazm, pp. 233-234)

Abu Bakr al-Jassas (d. 370 A.H.)

Abu Bakr al-Jassas states in Ahkam al-Qur’an:

تحريفهم إياه يكون بوجهين أحدهما بسوء التأويل والآخر بالتغيير والتبديل

Their tahreef is two-fold; one through false exegesis and the other through change and substitution.

Al- Hasan ibn Ayyub (d. 378 A.H.)   

Al- Hasan ibn Ayyub (d. 378 A.H.) said "We are in no doubt that the People of the Book have altered some of their words" (Ibn Taymiyyah, Aj-Jawab As-Sahih, vol. 2, p. 342, cited here)

Abul Hassan al-‘Amiri (d. 381 A.H.)

Abul Hassan al-‘Amiri on page 208 of his book al-I'lam bi manaqib al-Islam said:

فأما الأناجيل الأربعة التي كتبها تلامذة المسيح, أعني متى ولوقا ومرقس ويوحنا, فهي تشتمل على أخبار المسيح عليه السلام. وما جرت عليه أحواله من لدن مولده إلى أخر أيامه

In regard to the four gospels written by the students of Christ – I mean Matthew, Luke, Mark and John – they comprise of the stories of Christ (peace be upon him) from the time of his birth until the last of his days.

Hassan clearly admits that the gospels are not revealed by God, but are rather written by human beings.

Abdul Jabbar Al-Hamadani (d. 415 A.H.)

From Abdul Jabbar bin Ahmad Al-Hamadani (d. 415 A.H.) in his book Tathbeet Dala’il an-Nubuwwah said:

وعند هؤلاء الطوائف من النصارى أن هؤلاء الأربعة أصحاب المسيح وتلاميذه، وهم لا يعلمون ولا يدرون من هم ولا معهم في ذلك إلا الدعوى فقط

According to all the Christian sects, these four [i.e. Mark, Matthew, Luke & John] were companions and students of Christ. In reality, they don’t know who they are and only make assertions.

After stating that Luke claimed to have seen the companions of Christ, he said:

وليس هاهنا إلا دعوى بأنه رآهم، ولو كان ثقة لما علم بخبره شيء، ومع هذا فقد ذكر أن إنجيله أولى من إنجيل غيره. فلو تأمل النصارى لعلموا أنهم ليسوا على شيء من هذه الأناجيل التي معهم، ولا معهم علم مما يدعيه أربابها والواضعون لها

He is merely asserting that he saw them and even if for the sake of argument Luke was trustworthy, we wouldn’t benefit anything out of what he’s saying [i.e. due to Luke being vague about his sources]. If Christians were to only ponder and reflect on this, they would come to the realization that they stand on no ground when it comes to these gospels in their possession. They also have no knowledge or certainty regarding what these authors [of the gospels] are claiming.

Abu Raihan Muhammad Al-Biruni (d. 440 A.H.)

Abu Raihan Muhammad Al-Biruni who is more of a historian then an Islamic scholar per se and a contemporary of Ibn Hazm, concerned himself with the dating of Biblical events especially in the context of the Old Testament. He, too, asserted that the scriptures had been misunderstood by Christians, and that material corruption of the genuine text had taken place. (Al-Biruni, Al-Athar Al-Baqiyah, pp. 13 ff and p. 32 f., cited here))

Ibn Hazm (d. 456 A.H.)

Ibn Hazm said:

We do not need to try hard to prove that the Gospels and all the books of the Christians did not come from God or from the Messiah (peace be upon him), as we needed to do with regard to the Torah and the books attributed to the Prophets that the Jews have, because the Jews claim that the Torah that they have was revealed from God to Moosa, so we needed to establish proof that this claim of theirs is false. With regard to the Christians, they have taken care of the issue themselves, because they do not believe that the Gospels were revealed from God to the Messiah, or that the Messiah brought them, rather all of them from first to last, peasants and kings, Nestorians, Jacobites, Maronites and Orthodox are all agreed that there are four historical accounts written by four known men at different times. The first of them is the account written by Matthew the Levite who was a disciple of the Messiah, nine years after the Messiah was taken up into heaven. He wrote it in Hebrew in Judaea in Palestine, and it filled approximately twenty-eight pages in a medium-sized script. The next account was written by Mark, a disciple of Simon ben Yuna, who was called Peter, twenty-two years after the Messiah was taken up into heaven. He wrote it in Greek in Antioch in the land of the Byzantines. They say that the Simon mentioned is the one who wrote it, and then he erased his name from the beginning of it and attributed it to his disciple Mark. It filled twenty-four pages written in a medium-sized script. This Simon was a disciple of the Messiah. The third account written was that of Luke, a physician of Antioch who was also a disciple of Simon Peter. He wrote it in Greek after Mark had written his account, and is similar in length to the Gospel of Matthew. The fourth account was written by John the son of Zebedee, another disciple of the Messiah, sixty-odd years after the Messiah has been taken up into heaven. He wrote it in Greek, and it filled twenty-four pages in a medium-sized script. (Ibn Hazm, Al-Fasl fi'l Milal, Volume 2, p. 2, cited here)  

Ibn Hazm further states in the same book: 

With regard to the Christians, there is no dispute among them or anyone else that only one hundred and twenty men believed in the Messiah during his lifetime. and all of those who believed in him concealed themselves and were afraid during his lifetime and afterwards; they called people to his religion in secret and none of them disclosed himself or practiced his religion openly, because any of them who was caught was executed. 

They continued in this manner, not showing themselves at all, and they had no place where they were safe for three hundred years after the Messiah was taken up into heaven. 

During this time, the Gospel that had been revealed from Allaah disappeared, apart from a few verses, which Allaah preserved as proof against them and as a rebuke to them, as we have mentioned. Then when the Emperor Constantine became a Christian, then the Christians prevailed and started to practice their religion openly and assemble in safety. 

If a religion is like this, with its followers practicing it in secret and living in constant fear of the sword, it is impossible for things to be transmitted soundly via a continuous chain of narrators and its followers cannot protect it or prevent it from being distorted. (Ibn Hazm, Al-Fasl fi'l Milal, Volume 2, p. 4-5, cited here)  

Ibn Hazm also states that both Christians and Jews necessarily have both truth and falsehood in their books. (Ibn Hazm, Al-Fasl fi'l Milal, vol.2, p. 11, cited here    

 Ibn Hazm's perspective is clear and needs no elaboration. 

Al-Juwayni (d. 478 A.H.)

Imam al-Juwayni (d. 1085) in his “Shifa' al-Ghalil fi Bayan ma waqa'a fi al-Tawrat wal-Injil min al-Tabdil” points out several contradictions in the NT accounts. He also makes an interesting criticism regarding the infamous story of the raised saints in the Gospel of Matthew 27:52, which many modern critical scholars dispute.

Al-Juwayni pointed out that it’s very strange that such a story as this one wouldn’t have been reported by the other gospel accounts. He also argued that if such a story was true, then we would have observed multiple independently attested accounts about such an incredible event as this one.

He also points out how odd it must have been for Jesus to continue being ridiculed on the cross and his disciples later apparent obliviousness surrounding this incredible event when Jesus supposedly later appeared to them.

Al-Juwayni argues that if this incident truly happened then Christians would have used this as the ultimate proof and polemic against their opponents. They would have appealed to such an undeniable incident as a proof for the veracity of their beliefs. Yet, such a polemic is absent or rare. Makes no sense.

Abu Muhammad al-Baghawi (d. 516 A.H.)

Al-Baghawi in his famous Qur'anic commentary Ma'alim at-Tanzeel, while commenting on Surah 2, Verse 79 clearly talks about how there was a certain description of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in the Torah and then the Jews went and wrote something else besides it and changed his description. (See here

This clearly shows that Al-Baghawi believed that the Jews textually corrupted their scriptures by meddling with the description of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in the Torah.     

Az-Zamakhshari (d. 538 A.H.)

Imam az-Zamakhshari said:

The Qur'an claims to be a confirmation, protector and touchstone of the Truth contained in the Torah and Gospel. (Az-Zamakhshari, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 575, cited here) 

Notice how az-Zamakhshari states that one of the purposes of the Qur'an is to confirm and protect the Truth contained in the Torah and Gospel. Now, if Zamakhshari believed that the Torah and the Gospel were pure and uncorrupted, he would have simply stated that the Qur'an confirms the entire Torah and Gospel in the possession of the Christians and Jews. However, he wanted to clarify what is meant by the Quran's confirmation and that is that it confirms the truth in the Torah and Gospel, which indicates that the Torah and Gospel contain falsehood. Thus, az-Zamakhshari makes it clear that he believes that the Torah and Gospels were textually distorted.   

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (d.  606 A.H.)

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi has perhaps been the most misrepresented scholar on the issue by Christian missionaries. They quote him in many parts of his commentary in which he says that he doesn't believe that the specific verse in question is not speaking about textual corruption of the scripture but only distorting its interpretation and then they falsely conclude that Imam ar-Razi did not support the idea of textual corruption at all.  What these missionaries forget to realize is that one must look at ALL of Imam Razi's statements in his famous commentary on the Qur'an in order to see truly what his position was regarding the Christian and Jewish scriptures.

First of all we have to realize that Imam ar-Razi condemned certain parts of the Gospel:

Imam ar-Razi in his book Al-Matalib Al-'Aliya in the section on Prophethood says: "The influence of the original teachings of Jesus was very limited because he never preached the doctrine which the Christians ascribe to him. The idea of Father and so and the notion of Trinity are the worst kind of atheism and polytheism and are certainly the result of ignorance. Such heretical teachings can't be ascribed to a great prophet like Jesus who was free of all such sinful errors. We are therefore certain that Jesus could have not preached this impure doctrine. He originally taught monotheism but not Trinity as the Christians assert. These teachings of Jesus did not (widely) spread owing to many historical factors. His message thus remained very limited." (Cited here) 

Realize how Imam ar-Razi condemns the use of the word 'Father' that Christians use. But this is also used in the Gospel. This is an indirect condemnation from Imam ar-Razi on the present-day Gospels.

Imam ar-Razi said elsewhere:  

As for the third evidence it is with reference to what is maintained in the Torah and gospels concerning the Prophethood of Muhammad. The objection to this evidence (on the Jewish and Christian side) is whether you (Muslims) say that the description of Muhammad was written in these books in detail; namely that Allah Almighty, made manifest that he shall come in the coming years and in such and such country, a person whose description shall be such and such, and so know you that he is my messenger. On the one hand; or they say: 'No, but rather Allah has merely referred to him briefly, without specification due to time, place or personality.' And so if you hold on to the first claim it false and faulty: (O, you Muslims.)"

That is because we (Jews and Christians) find that the T and the G are empty of such claims; and must not be said that the Jews and the Christians have compared two scriptures; because we (Jews and Christians) say that these two scriptures and well-known in the east and the west; and such as these books cannot, in any way be overtaken by corruption exactly as in the case of the Qur'an. Alternatively: If you (Muslims) hold on to the second claim, even if we suppose that you are right to hold that view, then this cannot be taken as a proof in support of Prophethood; or perhaps it may only allude the coming of a virtuous and noble person. Or even if it is alluding to a Prophethood, it is not necessarily indicating the Prophethood of Muhammad, since it may also foretell the advent of another messenger, other than Muhammad. (Fakhar ad-Din ar-Razi, Muhassal Afkar Al-Mutaqadimin Wal-Mut'akhrin (Cairo, Maktabat al-Kuliyyat al-Azhariyya) p. 211 and Fakhr ar-Razi, Mafatih Al-Ghayb, Cairo, Dar al-Ghad al-'Arabi, 1412 A.H. 1991 A.D. vol.3, pp.186 f, vol.9, 233, cited here)

Notice that Imam ar-Razi said: 

it is with reference to what is maintained in the Torah and Gospels concerning the Prophethood of Muhammad. 

If Imam ar-Razi truly believed that the text of the Torah and Gospels has been preserved then he wouldn't have uttered that statement. The fact that he believes some parts of the Prophet Muhammad's descriptions and traits were maintained in the Torah and Gospels actually shows that he doesn't believe that all of them were. Thus he indirectly shows us that he believes that the Torah and Gospels were textually corrupted. 

Imam ar-Razi in his commentary on Surah 4, verse 46 makes it crystal clear that he supported textual corruption of the previous scriptures:

  { يُحَرّفُونَ ٱلْكَلِمَ عَن مَّوٰضِعِهِ } معناه: أنهم يذكرون التأويلات الفاسدة لتلك النصوص، وليس فيه بيان أنهم يخرجون تلك اللفظة من الكتاب. وأما الآية المذكورة في سورة المائدة، فهي دالة على أنهم جمعوا بين الأمرين، فكانوا يذكرون التأويلات الفاسدة، وكانوا يخرجون اللفظ أيضا من الكتاب، فقوله: { يُحَرّفُونَ ٱلْكَلِمَ } إشارة إلى التأويل الباطل وقوله: { مِن بَعْدِ مَوٰضِعِهِ } إشارة إلى إخراجه عن الكتاب

In regards to Allah's statement "They pervert the words from their proper places" (Surah 4:46), it means that they mention the corrupted interpretations for those verses, and there is no proof that they take the actual statements out of the book.

And as for the verse in Surah 5:41, this is evidence that they have combined between the two (textual corruption and misinterpreting the text), they used to mention their corrupted interpretations, and they also used to remove the statements from thebook. Allah's statement "They pervert words" indicates misinterpreting the text and Allah's statement "after their being put in their right places" indicates that the statements were removed from the book. (Fakhar ad-Din ar-Razi, Tafsir Al-Kabir, Commentary on Surah 4:46, Source) 

Imam ar-Razi has spoken and made it clear. Yes indeed, Imam ar-Razi at times has said that certain verses like Surah 4:46 does not indicate textual corruption but only misinterpreting the text. However, we must not forget that Imam ar-Razi has also stated that verses such as Surah 5:41 do teach that textual corruption has been made. Case closed. 

Read additional relevant points here.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 A.H.)

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said: 

With regard to the Gospels that the Christians have, there are four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. They are agreed that Luke and Mark did not see the Messiah; rather he was seen by Matthew and John. These four accounts that they call the Gospel, and they call each one of them a Gospel, were written by these men after the Messiah had been taken up into heaven. They did not say that they are the word of God or that the Messiah conveyed them from God, rather they narrated some of the words of the Messiah and some of his deeds and miracles. (Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Jawaab al-Saheeh, (3:21), cited here) 

Ibn Kathir, the student/disciple of Ibn Taimiyyah, says: 

Our Sheikh the notable Imam Abul-'Abbas Ibn Taimiyyah said: As for those who argued that it [the Torah] is entirely corrupted from beginning to end without sparing one letter, they are mistaken. Also, those who argued that nothing has been corrupted are mistaken. The truth is that alteration and change had reached it and they [the Jews] manipulated its words with additions and omissions as they manipulated its meanings. This is well recognized on pondering and may be explained in another occasion, and Allah knows best.... (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa Al-Nihayah, Volume 2, pages 152-153)

Clearly Ibn Taymiyyah does not believe that the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John are the Gospels that were revealed by Allah. Thus believing that the original and true Gospel has been textually corrupted.

Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah's famous book al-Jawaab al-Saheeh in refuting the Christians could be read here 

Al-Qurtubi (d. 671 A.H.)

Imam al-Qurtubi states in his commentary on Surah 2:211:

لِكَوْنِهِمْ بَدَّلُوا مَا فِي كُتُبهمْ وَجَحَدُوا أَمْر مُحَمَّد صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ  

For they have replaced what is in their books and abandoned the command of Muhammad (peace be upon him). (Abu 'Abdullah al-Qurtubi's, Tasfir al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an, Commentary on Surah 2:211, Source) 

Imam al-Qurtubi also states in his commentary on Surah 5:13:

وَقِيلَ : مَعْنَاهُ يُبَدِّلُونَ حُرُوفه

And it is said that they changed its letters. (Abu 'Abdullah al-Qurtubi's, Tasfir al-Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an, Commentary on Surah 5:13, Source) 

Imam al-Qurtubi says in one of his books:

The book which is in the hands of the Christians and which they call the Injil (Gospel) is not that of which God says, "And He Has Sent Down The Torah and Injil..." (Surah 3:3) (Abu 'Abdullah al-Qurtubi, Maqami Hamat As-Sulban Wa Marati Rawdat Al-Iman, ed. by Muhammad Abd al-Ghani Shama, (Cairo, al-Madani, n.d.), pp.183, cited here) 

Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah agrees with this position in his book al-Jawaab al-Saheeh, Vol.1, pp.5, cited here.

Also, Abu al-Fadl al-S'udi al-Maliki (d. 942 A.H.) agrees with this position as well in his book Al-Muntakhab Al Jalil Min Takhjil Man Harrafa Al-Injil, (Cairo, al-Tamadun, 1322 A.H.), pp.14, cited here. 

Imam al-Qurtubi explicitly states that the corruption was with the letters (indicating textual corruption) and states that the Gospel in the possession of the Christians is not the one in which Allah claims to have revealed in the Qur'an. Therefore, clearly stating that the text of the Gospel that the Christians have is not the same as what Allah has revealed. Thus, Imam Qurtubi is clearly stating that he believes that the text of the Gospel has been textually corrupted.

Sulaiman ibn Abdul-Qawi al-Tufi (d. 716 A.H.)

Sulaiman ibn Abdul-Qawi al-Tufi, the student/disciple of Ibn Taimiyyah, notes:

Be acknowledged that these Scriptures [of Jews and Christians] are unreliable because we consider them corrupted and changed. Yes, alteration have not involved them entirely, but reached them after all. That is why our Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: (( Do not believe the People of the Book and do not deny them. Say: "We believe in Allah and what has been revealed to us and what has been revealed to you. Our God and your God is One, and to Him we have submitted.'')).

He prohibited believing them for fear of that they may tell us something that is definitely corrupted, and disbelieving them for fear of that it may be not corrupted. (Sulaiman ibn Abdul-Qawi al-Tufi, Al-Intesarat Al-Islamiyyah, 1/230-232)

and says:

Moreover, the same way they [i.e., Jews and Christians] do not consider our Book reliable, we do not consider their Books reliable. This is actually prior because their Books are older and much subjected to mistranslation on the contrary of our Book. (Ibid., 1/232)

and says:

Additions and omissions do not reach it [the Qur'an] on the contrary of the Torah and the Injil as I have seen myself in the two Scriptures regarding contradiction and discrepancy and noted in my commentary on the two Scriptures. (Ibid., 1/294)

and says:

We believe that the Qur'an is the truth, and the Torah whom you use against us, not the one given to Moses, is falsehood and fabrication. (Ibid., 1/341)

and says:

The general answer is lack of trust in these Scriptures due to their antiquity, translation from one language to another and suspicion in honesty of Jews and Christians [in preservation] especially regarding the Injil for I explained in my commentary on it our excuses of non-trust in it concerning difference and contradiction. (Ibid., 1/350)

Ibn Kathir (d. 774 A.H.)  

Ibn Kathir states in his commentary on Surah 5:15:

Now has come to you Our Messenger explaining to you much of that which you used to hide from the Scripture and passing over much.) So the Prophet explained where they altered, distorted, changed and lied about Allah. He also ignored much of what they changed, since it would not bring about any benefit if it was explained. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Source)  

Ibn Kathir also says:

(but a confirmation of that which was before it) in reference to the previously revealed Divine Books, by which this Qur'an testifies to the true parts that remain in them and denies and refutes the forged parts that were added, changed and falsified by people. The Qur'an accepts or abrogates whatever Allah wills of these Books, (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Source)

Ibn Kathir also states the following regarding a certain aspect of the story of Adam in the Bible:

This story in the Old Testament is a falsification and deception. (Ibn Kathir, The Stories of the Prophets, Chapter on Prophet Adam, Source) 

Ibn Kathir also said:

I [Ibn Kathir] say: As for the Arabic Torah in their hands, no sane person doubts its alteration, textual corruption, change of stories and words, additions and obvious clear omissions. Glaring lies and extreme errors are so abundant in it. As regards what they recite with their tongues and write with their pens, we have no access to, but it is assumed they are dishonest liars who frequently invent forgeries against Allah, His Messengers and Books.

As for Christians, their four Gospels on authority of Marks, Luke, Matthew and John are much more divergent and different by addition and omission than the Torah. They disobeyed the rulings of the Torah and the Injil in so many things they legalized for themselves.
 (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa Al-Nihayah, Volume 2, pages 152-153)

Ibn Kathir's statements cannot get any clearer. He declared a story found in the Old Testament to be a forgery. Since the story is found in the text of the Old Testament and it is declared a forgery then clearly Ibn Kathir believed that the text of the Jewish scripture was corrupted. 

 Jalalayn (al-Mahilli d. 864 A.H.; as-Suyuti 911 A.H.)

As-Suyuti says in his commentary on Surah 2:79:

وَهُمْ الْيَهُود غَيَّرُوا صِفَة النَّبِيّ فِي التَّوْرَاة وَآيَة الرَّجْم وَغَيْرهمَا وَكَتَبُوهَا عَلَى خِلَاف مَا أُنْزِلَ

And they are the Jews who changed the traits and descriptions of the Prophet in the Torah and the verse on stoning. They changed them and wrote in contrast to what has been revealed(Jalal ud-Din Siyuti, Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Commentary on Surah 2:79, Source) 

Clearly, as-Suyuti believed that the Jews meddled with the descriptions of the Prophet in the Torah and then wrote things in contrast to them. as- Suyuti is clearly speaking about textual corruption of the Torah by the Jews in regards to the Prophet's traits and descriptions.



After appealing to the Qur'an, authentic traditions of the Prophet, his companions, early Muslims, and greatest Muslim scholars, we conclude that Islam directly and indirectly teaches the textual corruption of the Torah and Gospel. There is no other source of religious Islamic authority one can go to. The issue is clear, and Christian missionaries who are sincere and truth seekers should stop using these outdated arguments.



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